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44 Cards in this Set

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What 2 bugs are energy- and intra-cellular parasites?
chlamydia and rickettsia
How do chlamydia and rickettsia absorb ATP?
ATP/ADP translocator
What cells does chlamydia like to inhabit?
columnar epithelial cells of mucous membranes (conjunctivitis, cervicitis, pneumonia)
What are the 2 forms of the chlamydia life cycle?
1.elementary body; 2. initial (reticulate) body
Which can make its own eneRgy (ATP)?
Rickettsia
How do chlamydia and rickettsia spread?
C: person to person Contact; R: aRthropod vectoR
What are the 3 species of Chlamydia?
C. trachomatis (eyes, genitals, lungs); C. psittaci (lungs); C. pneumonia (lungs)
What is the treatment for Chlamydia?
tetracycline (doxycycline) or erythromycin
What is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world?
trachoma (eye traction): caused by chlamydia trachomatis (serotypes A,B,C); in the U.S., native Americans are most affected and the main reservoir is the kid population
Why are babies given erythromycin eye drops?
inclusion conjunctivitis
What does C. trachomatis (serotypes D-K) cause?
1. inclusion conjuctivitis; 2. infant pneumonia; 3. cervicitis; 4. non-gonococcal urethritis in men
What are the 2 predominant causes of NGU (non-gonococcal urethritis)?
C. trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum
Do NGU and gonococcal urethritis occur together?
YES!
What structures does Chlamydia lack?
peptidoglycan layer + muramic acid
What is a typical treatment for urethritis of unknown origin?
1. ceftriaxone (Neisseria gonorrhea); 2. 7-day oral doxycycline or 1-day azithromycin (C. trachomatis or U. urealyticum)
What is PID and what causes it?
pelvic inflammatory disease in women caused by N. gonorrhea or C. trachomatis
How do you treat PID?
ceftriaxone and 14 days of doxycycline
What are some sequelae of PID?
1. infertility; 2. tubal (ectopic) pregnancy; 3. chronic pelvic pain
What is Reiter's syndrome?
inflammatory arthRITIS of large joints, usually in young men 20-40 years old; often caused by Chlamydia
What is Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome?
infection of liver capsule with upper R quadrant pain; associated with Chlamydial or Gonococcal infections
What does C. trachomatis (serotypes L1, L2, L3) cause?
LGV: lymphogranuloma venerum; starts with painless papule on genitals, heals, then bacteria move to regional lymph nodes
What is psittacosis?
atypical pneumonia caused by C.psittaci, usually contracted from birds
What are the causes of atypical pneumonias?
Mycoplasma pneumoniae, C. psittaci, C. pneumoniae
What is Chlamydia pneumonia TWAR?
recently discovered species of chlamydia which causes atypical pneumonia; TWAR=TaiWan and Acute Respiratory
What test is used to confirm Rickettsiae diagnosis?
Weil-Felix test: look at the OX-2, OX-19, OX-K antigens which are also found on the Proteus vulgaris
What are 3 other tests besides the Weil-Felix test to confirm Rickettsiae?
1. IFA (immunofluorescence test); 2. CF (complement fixation test); 3. ELISA (enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay)
Why is rickettsiae a "traveler"?
1. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (rides a tick); 2. epidemic typhus (a louse); endemic typhus (a flea)
What is the Rickettsiae vector?
aRthropod vectoR
Wher to Rickettsiae and Chlamydia replicate in the cell?
R: cytoplasma; C: endosomes
What host cells do Rickettsiae prefer?
endothelial cells
What diseases do Rickettsiae cause?
rashes, high fevers, bad headaches
What is the Rickettsiae TAXI?
T: gram -, non-motile, rod to coccoid shaped bacteria; A: intracellular parasite, traveler, arthropod vector, likes endothelial cells; X: rashes, high fever, bad headaches (Rocky Mtn Spotted fever, Rickettsial pox, epidemic typhus, endemic typhus, Tsutsumaguchi fever; I: doxycycline, chloramphenicol
What is Rocky Mtn spotted fever?
caused by R. rickettsii; signs/symptoms: fever, conjunctival redness, severe headache, rash that moves from writsts, ankles, soles, palms to trunk; southeast U.S.; attack endothelial lining of small blood vessels, capillaries causing small hemorrhage & thrombi
What is rickettsial pox?
caused by R. akari; transmitted by mites on mice; self-limited, mild disease
What is epidemic typhus?
caused by R. prowasekii; carried by lice in crowded, dirty conditions; flying squirrels are reservoirs in the US; fever, headache, pink macules on upper trunk, risk of clotting and gangrene
What is Brill-Zinsser disease?
caused by latent R. Prowasekii left over from epidemic typhus not treated with antibiotics
What is endemic typhus?
R. typhi; carried by flea and rodents are reservoir; less serious than epidemic typhus
What is scrub typhus?
aka Tsutsumagushi fever caused by R. tsutsumagushi; spread by larvae of mites (chiggers); mites live on rodents; high fever, headache, scab at the bite site; flat or bumpy rash
What is Bartonella quintana and what does it cause?
formerly Rochalimea, causes Trench fever; Bartonella quintana stands fro the 5 day interval between relapses
What 2 diseases are associated with war, filth, lice?
epidemic typhus and Trench fever
What is Bartonella henselae?
causes cat-scratch fever and Bacillary angiomatosis
What is Q fever?
caused by Coxiella burnetti which has an endospore form; soaking sweats, abrupt onset of fever, pneumonia; only rickettsial disease causing pneumonia and NO rash
How is Coxiella burnetti different from other Rickettsia?
endospore form; resist heat & drying; extracellular existence; non-arthropod transmission (ticks and cattle); mild pneumonia due to inhaled spores
What is Ehrlichiea chaffeensis?
close relative of Ehrlichia canis, the disease transmitted between dogs with ticks; similar to Rocky Mountain spotted fever, but only 20% get rash