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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a genome?
A cell's endowment of DNA, its genetic information.
DNA molecules are packaged into what?
Cell division results in ________.
Genetically identical daughter cells.
Each duplicated chromosomes has two _________.
Sister chromatids.
What is the narrow "waist" of two attached sister chromatids?
What is mitosis?
The division of the nucleus.
What is cytokinesis?
The division of the cytoplasm.
List the parts of the cell cycle in order.
Interphase (G1, S, G2)
M Phase (Mitosis, Cytokinesis)
What are the stages of mitosis in order?
Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
When does the mitotic spindle begin to form?
What type of structure is the mitotic spindle?
What organizes the cell's microtubules?
Centrosome (MTOC - microtubule organizing center).
What is an aster?
A radial array of short microtubules that extend from each centrosome.
What does the kinetochore do?
It "walks" along the spindle fibers to pull chromosomes in half. It also breaks down the microtubules attached to the chromosomes.
What causes a cleavage furrow during the cell cycle?
What is a checkpoint in the cell cycle?
A critical control point where stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cycle.
In which phases are the major checkpoints found for the cell cycle?
G1, G2, M Phases.
What occurs if the cell does not receive a go-ahead signal at a checkpoint?
The cell will switch into a non-dividing state called the G0 phase.
What must a kinase be attached to to drive the cell cycle?
What is MPF, and what does it do?
Maturation-promoting factor. It triggers the cell's passage past the G2 checkpoint into M phase by phosphorylating a variety of proteins.
What is a growth factor?
A protein released by certain cells that stimulate other cells to divide.
What are two external physical factors on cell division?
Density-dependent inhibition, where crowded cells stop dividing due to insufficient amounts of nutrients. Anchorage dependence, where cells must be attached to a substratum to divide.
What is metastasis?
The spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site.