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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Extends head, shrugs shoulder.
Trapezium
Extensions of fascia that attach muscle to periosteum of bone.
Tendons
Extends thigh, forms buttocks.
Gluteus Maximus
Compresses abdomen, rotates trunk.
External Oblique
Flexes spine, stabilized pelvis.
Rectus Abdominis
Covers bundles of muscles.
Fascia
For injections, abducts femur to shift weight when walking.
Gluteus Medius & Minimus
Excitability
Contractility
Elasticity
Characteristics of Muscle Cells
Flexes and turns head to side.
Sternocleidomastoid
Covers muscle fibers that are grouped into bundles that appear as parallel strands to the eye and make up the grain in meat.
Fascicles
Flexes hip and knee - rotates femur and tibia - used to cross legs.
Sartorius
Energy storing polysaccharide abundant in muscle.
Glycogen
Pulls thoracic cavity up and out to increase size of thoracic cavity.
External and Internal Intercostals
Support viscera, elevates anus for defecation, forms sphincters.
Leviator Ani
Extend knee & lower leg.
Quadriceps
Cytoplasm.
Sarcoplasm
Contracts, flattens to increase size fo thoracic cavity.
Diaphragm
Smooth
Cardiac
Skeletal
Types of Muscle
Flex knee & extend thigh.
Hamstrings
Abduct & raises humerous.
Deltoid
Sarcomeres are pulled toward each other as myosin heads interat with actin.
Contraction
SER that forms a network around each myofibril and along T-tubules.
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Dorsiflexion & inversion of foot.
Tibialis Anterior
Contractile protein consisting of 200-500 molecules of myosin shaped liek gulf clubs with two heads.
Thick action of Myofilaments
Synaptic Knob
Synaptic Cleft
Schwann Cell
Neuromuscular junction (motor end plate unit) conists of:
Bundles of parrellel microfilaments.
Myofibril
Flexion of knee, plantar flexion of foot (stand on toes).
Gastrocnemius
Support, Movement, Thermoregulation, Venous Return, Protection, Communication
Functions of Muscle
Muscle that produces the most force during a particular action.
Prime Mover (agonist)
Consists of three components:
Tropomysin
Troponin
Thin Action of Myofilaments
Adducts femur, flexes knee, rotates tibia.
Gracilis
Muscle Cell Membrane.
Sarcolemma
Axon fiber and muscle fiber stimulated by the axon. All muscles contract in unison as single unit over wide area.
Motor End Unit
Tunnel-Like extensions that penetrate inside of the muscle fiber to carry electric current from surface to interior of cell.
Tranverse Tubules
Flexes elbow and forearm, supinates hand.
Biceps Brachii
Flexes * adducts shoulder & humerous acoss chest to climb, throw, push.
Pectoralis Major
Isometric - tension with no change in length.
Isotonic - contraction with change of length no change in tension.
Two Phases of Muscle Activity
Scar tissue replaces cells, normal function is not restored.
Fibrosis
Extend elbow and forearm.
Triceps Brachii
Adducts and extends humerous & shoulder for downward stroke of arm (hammering).
Latissimus Dorsi
Smooth, prolonged contraction due to rapid series of stimuli proding 4 times the tension as a single twitch.
Tetanus
Flexes hip joint & thigh.
Ilopsoas Group
Made by cells, gives a few seconds of energy then muscle acquires ATP by Creatine Phosphate.
ATP
Created during a burst of strenuous excercise when circulatory system cannot deliver sufficient oxygen to keep up with demand. Rapid breathing restores oxygen level.
Oxygen Debt
Contractile unit joined end to end at Z line inside of myofibris. Hundreds of repeating units are joined end to end along the length of each muscle cell.
Sarcomere
Both neurons and muscle are excitable due to charge in ions. Na-K pump maintains this concentration difference.
Membrane Potential
Not attached to bone, forms tubes in body walls or layers in organs and contract in response to stretching, chemicals, or hormones.
Smooth Muscle
ATP & CP provides nearly all the energy used for short bursts of intense activity.
Phosphagen System
Muscles shift to anaerobic respiration until cardiopulmonary system catches up. 30-40 seconds of activity - accumulate lactic acid - cramps occur.
Glycogen-Lactic Acid System
Gap of space between knob and muscle cell - contains acetylcholinesterase (AchE).
Synaptic Cleft
Axon connected to a skeletal muscle. Nerve fibers branch at axon end to stimulate one or more muscle fibers at motor end unit.
Somatic motor fibers
Regenerates ATP from ADP during sliding filament.
Creatine Phosphate
Muscle that aids the prime mover to produce a more powerful effect.
Synergist
Contraction and relaxation.
Twitch
Temporay rigidity post mortenm due to ATP depletion following the cessation of cellular respiration after death. Myosin heads are not released until tissue begins to degrade.
Rigor Mortis
Muscle that prevents bone movement. - attached to muscle origin - prevent from being pulled out of place.
Fixator
Surround and seals whole junction to isolate it from surrounding fluid.
Schwann cell
Bulb on end of motor nerve axon nestled into depression in muscle sarcolemma - release neurotransmitter chemical that stimulates cell axon.

Synaptic Knob
Excitation
Contraction Coupling
Contraction Stage-Sliding Filament Theory
Relaxtion
Steps of muscle Contration
The involvement of a certain number of motor units in a particular body movement.
Recruitment.
Prime Mover (agonist)
Synergist
Antagonist
Fixator
4 Classes of Muscles Actions
Opposes agonist - prevents injury - Antagonistic pairs required at joints.
Antagonist
Muscles that are used for short, quick work. - great deal of strength by only briefly.
White Fibers - White Meat
Eye sphincter, closes eye.
Orbicularis Oculi
Neorotransmitter stored in synaptic vessicles of knob and stimulates muscle.
Acetylcholine
Raises/lowers the forehead.
Frontalis
Chewing, closes jaw.
Masseter
Origin
Body
Insertion
Part or Muscles
Contract and relax in alternating rhythm to propel blood with each contraction-pacemaker coordinates contractions.
Cardiac Muscle
Mouth sphinter, puckers lips, aids in forming words.
Orbicularis Oris
The minimum voltage required to produce a contraction.
Threshold
Requires a steady supply oxygen - dark meat.
Red Fibers - Slow Twitch Fibers
Some muscle fibers are always contracting. - Maintaining posture.
Tone