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47 Cards in this Set

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adrenal glands
situated on top of the kidneys and consist of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla
adrenal cortex
produces adrenocortical steroids; determines which genes are transcribed in the nuclei of their target cells and at what particular rate
glucocorticoids
cortisol & cortisone; glucose regulation and protein metabolism; raise blood glucose levels by promoting protein breakdown and gluconeogenesis and decreasing protein synthesis; antagonistic to effects of insulin
mineralocorticoids
aldosterone; regulate plasma levels of sodium and potassium and total extracellular water volume
aldosterone
causes active reabsorption of sodium and passive reabsorption of water in the nephron of the kidney; increase in blood volume and pressure;hypertension
cortical sex hormones
secretes androgens (male sex hormones)
adrenal medulla
produces epinephrine and norepinephrine
epinephrine
increases conversion of glycogen to glucose in liver and muscle tissue, causing an increase in blood glucose levels and an increase in the basal metabolic rate
pituitary gland
hypophysis; small, tri-lobed gland lying at base of brain
infundibulum
slender cord connecting hypothalamus and pituitary gland
anterior pituitary
synthesizes direct hormones and tropic hormones; regulated by hypothalamic secretions called releasing/inhibiting factors
direct hormones
directly stimulate target organs
1. growth hormone
2. prolactin
growth hormone
promotes bone and muscle growth; promotes protein and lipid synthesis
prolactin
stimulates milk production and secretion in female mammary glands
tropic hormones
stimulate other endocrine glands to release hormones
1. ACTH
2. TSH
3. LH
4. FSH
5. MSH
6. Endorphins
ACTH
adrenocorticotropic hormone; stimulates adrenal cortex to synthesize & secrete glucocorticoids and is regulated by releasing hormone corticotrophin releasing factor
TSH
thyroid stimulating hormone; stimulates thyroid gland to synthesize and release thyroid hormones
LH
luteiniizng hormone; in women, stimulates ovulation & formation of corpus luteum; progesterone secretion in women & testosterone in men
FSH
follicle stimulating hormone; maturation of ovarian follicles that begin secreting estrogen; maturation of seminiferous tubules
endorphins
neurotransmitters that have pain relieving properties
posterior pituitary
neurohypophysis; does not synthesize hormones; stores and releases oxytocin and ADH
oxytocin
secreted during childbirth; increases strength of uterine muscle contractions
ADH
antidiuretic hormone/vasopressin; increases permeability of nephron's collecting duct to water, promoting water reabsorption & increasing blood volume, which increases blood pressure
hypothalamus
part of forebrain & directly above pituitary gland
hypothyroidism
thyroid hormones are undersecreted or not secreted at all; slowed heart rate, weight gain; cretinism
hyperthyroidism
thyroid is overstimulated; weight loss, increased metabolic rate
calcitonin
decreases Ca2+ concrentration by inhibiting release from bone; antagonistic to parathyroid hormone
exocrine function of pancreas
performed by cells that secrete digestive enzymes into small intestine
endocrine function of pancreas
performed by islets of Langerhans
alpha cells
secrete glucagon
beta cells
produce and secrete insulin
glucagon
stimulates protein and fat degradation, conversion of glycogen to glucose, and gluconeogenesis which increase blood glucose leves
insulin
secreted in response to high blood glucose concentration; stimulates uptake of glucose by muscle and storage of glucose as glycogen
parathyroid glands
4 structures embedded in posterior surface of thyroid; regulates plasma Ca2+ concentration
pineal gland
at base of brain; secretes melatonin; circadian rhythms
peptides
bind to specific receptors on the surface of target cells to trigger series of enzymatic reactions within each cell; cascade effect; hormones effects are amplified
steroids
lipid derived molecules with characteristic ring structure; produced by testes, ovaries, placenta, adrenal cortex; enter target cells directly
auxins
responsible to phototropism
phototropism
tendency of shoots of plants to bend toward light sources
geotropism
growth of portions of plants toward or away from gravity
negative geotropism
causes shoots to grow upward away from acceleration of gravity
positive geotropism
causes roots to grow toward pull of gravity
gibberellins
stimulate rapid stem elongation; inhibit formation of new roots and stimulate production of new phloem cells by cambium; terminate dormancy of seeds and buds
kinins
promote cell division
ethylene
stimulates fruit ripening, induces senescence or aging
inhibitors
block cell division; growth regulation; maintenance of dormancy in lateral buds and seeds during fall and winter; abscisic acid
antiauxins
regulate activity of auxins