Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the term for a feeling of loyalty to a country as a whole?
What year did the Hundred Years' War begin?
What were the three basic causes of the Hundred Years' War?
1) The English king Edward III claimed the provinces of Aquitaine and Gascony in France.
2) Edward III tried to seize the French throne when the last male Capetian died.
3) England and France competed for control of commercially rich Flanders.
What were the two important developments that the Hundred Years' War brought?
1) The European's use of the longbow and the cannon. The longbow was 5 or 6 feet long with a range of up to 400 yards. English footsoldiers armed with these completely defeated a French cavalry at Agincourt. The knights on horseback were no match for the longbowmen. Also, the development of gunpowder that came from the Muslims was used by the Europeans. The gun started as a crude tube of wood and metal that used gunpowder to hurl stone or chunks of metal. A powerful cannon blast would break a castle's think walls.
2) The parliment forced the English kings to agree to a number of rights:
a) Parliment, as well as the king, had to approve any restatement or change of a law
b) Parliment gained the right to levy all taxes, and any new tax had to be proposed first by the House of Commons rather than by the House of Lords
c) the king could spend money only for the purpose for which Parliament had appropiated it.
In what year did the Hundred Years' War end?
What was the outcome of the Hundred Years' War?
England lost all of its land in france except Calais. The losses helped England in the long run. The king could now pay attention to governing his own country.
Which civil war delayed the emergence of a strong centralized government in England?
the War of the Roses
Which families struggled for the throne during the War of the Roses?
the York and Lancaster families
What color roses did the Yorkists use? What color did the LAncastrians use?
Lancastrians- red
Which member of the House of Lancaster ended the War of the Roses by defeating which Yorkist king?
Henry Tudor; Richard III
Who did Henry Tudor marry?
a daughter of the House of York
What name did Henry Tudor later adopt? What dynasty did he found?
Henry VII; the Tudor dynasty
Which two branches of the royal family fought and made it difficult for the French to fight the English?
Burgundy and Orleans
Which undeducated French peasant girl said she heard voices when she was in her teens?
Joan of Arc
What did Joan of Arc's voices tell her to do?
to leave her small village and help defend the city of Orleans which was under English attack
Along with helping French troopes save Orleans, Joan of Arc also helped the heir to the French throne thake the crown as who?
Charles VII
After Joan of Arc was captured, what did a church council convict her of?
heresy and witchcraft
What happened to Joan of Arc after she was convicted? What did the an English leader cry out?
she was burned at the stake; "We are lost! We have burned a saint!"
Who established a representative assembly resembling the English Parliament? What was this assembly called?
Phillip IV; the Estates-General
What are the groups that attended the meetings of the Estates-General?
members of the clergy (First Estate)
nobles (Second Estate)
townspeople (Third Estate)
Which French ruler emerged strong enough to rule without the Estates-General?
Charles VII
Which French king was one of the most remarkable kings who further strengthened the French monarchy?
Louis VI
What did Louis XI's opponents call him?
"The Spider"
Louis XI used diplomacy to build an alliance against who?
Charles the Bold, the Duke of Normandy
Which people did Louis's fighting for him?
the Swiss
What weapon gave the Swiss superior power?
the pike
Which provinces whose nobles died without heirs did Louis XI claim?
Anjou, Maine, and Provence
Which province did Louis XI gain through marriage?
Which four principal Christian kingdoms emerged on the Iberian Peninsula?
Portugal, Castile-Leon, Navarre, and Aragon
Which last stronghold of the Moors in Spain also shared the Iberian Peninsula?
A marriage between which two people was the first real step toward unification of the Iberian Peninsula?
Isabella of Castile-Leon and Ferdinand of Aragon
What did Isabella and Ferdinand order Jews and Moors in their country to do? What did most people do
become christians or leave; leave
How many electors did Charles IV decide would choose the emperor?
A member from which family which ruled a small state in what is now Switzerland, was elected president?
the Hapsburg family
What did the Hapsburgs do to gain land?
have well-planned aranged marriages
Germany was made up of how many separate and independent governments?
more than 300
What are the two reasons that the worldly power of the church began to weaken after Pope Innocent III's death?
1) Europe was changing. Kings developed strong natinoal governments with rich treasuries. The importance of townspeople grew, and they often felt taht the restrictions of church laws hindered trade and industry.
2) The wisdom of the Muslims and the pagan greeks appeared in Europe as a "new learning". Much of it conflicted with the teachings of the church. A spirit of questioning began. People critisized the church.
A serious clash between the church and secular authority erupted over what issue?
whether the clergy had to obey national laws or pay taxes
Which king demanded that the clergy pay taxes to the national treasury? Who did this anger?
Phillip IV of France (Philip the Fair);
Pope Boniface VIII
What happened to Boniface VIII
Philip IV had him put on trial for simony and heresy. Boniface VIII was seized and held a prisoner. He was quickly released, though he died soon afterwards.
From where to where did the newly elected pope move the headquarters of the papacy?
from Rome to Avignon, in southern France
How many popes after the one that moved the capital to Avignon were French? For how many more years did the papal capital remain in Avignon?
six popes; 70 years
What is the period of papal history in which the papal capital was Avignon and the popes were French called?
the Babylonian Captiviy
What was the Babylonian Captivity named after?
the Hebrew captivity in Babylonia
What caused an especially difficult time for the papacy?
A French pope was persuaded to leave Avignon and return to Rome, where he died.
The threats of a Roman mob forced the College of Cardinals to elect a(n) _______ pope.
The French cardinals later elected a ______ pope, who remained in Avignon?
What did the Italian pope do to the French pope and the cardinals? What did the French pope do to the Italian pope and his cardinals?
they excommunicated each other
What is the excommunicating frenzy between the Italian and French pope called?
the Great Schism
What does "Great Schism" mean?
a division into hostile groups
Where did a church council meat to attempt to heal the schism and to consider reforms of all the weaknesses of the church?
Constance in Germany
What did the Council of Constance decide to do with the Great Schism?
he deposited both the Italian and French popes
Which two members of the Franciscan order wrote an influential work that said how the pope was only the elected head of the church and had no other power? What was the name of this work?
Marsilius of Padua and John of Jandun; Defender of the Peace
Which member of the clergy and teacher at Oxford University adopted and spread the beliefs in England?
John Wycliffe
Which teacher at the University of Prague was influenced by John Wycliffe?
John Huss of Bohemia
What did Huss' denouncing of abuses in the church lead to?
him being excommunicated and appearing in front of the Council of Constance to answer charges of heresy. They condemned him and burned him at the stake.
Explain the ideas of the Denfender of the Peace.
The pope was only an elected official and had no other powers. All powe belonged to the members of the church, who could delegate power only to a general church council. A council had authorit to make broad reforms in the entire church, including the papacy.