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35 Cards in this Set

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Personality trait
A durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations
ID
The primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle
pleasure principle
Demands immediate gratification of its urges
ego
The decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle
reality principle
Seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found
superego
The moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong
conscious
Consists of whatever one is aware
preconscious
Contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved
unconscious
Contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior
defense mechanisms
Largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt
rationalization
Creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior
Repression
Keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious
Projection
Attributing one's own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another
Displacement
Diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target
reaction formation
Behaving in a way that's exactly the opposite of one's true feelings
Regression
Reversion to immature patterns of behavior
Identification
Bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group
Sublimation
Occurs when unconscious, unacceptable impulses are channeled into socially acceptable, perhaps even admirable, behaviors
Psychosexual stages
Are developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality
Fixation
Involves a failure to move forward from one stage to another
Archetypes
Emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning
Striving for superiority
A universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life's challenges
Compensation
Involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one's abilities
Behaviorism
A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
Observational learning
Occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others
Model
A person whose behavior is observed by another
Self-efficacy
Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes
Humanism
A theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth
Self-concept
A collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior
Incongruence
Is the degree of disparity between one's self-concept and one's actual experience
Hierarchy of needs
A systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused
Need for self-actualization
Is the need to fulfill one's potential
Narcissism
A personality trait marked by an inflated sense of importance, a need for attention and admiration, a sense of entitlement, and a tendency to exploit others
What is the Big Five?
They are five high-order traits that are used to identify the crucial dimensions that underlie the diverse personality traits
List the Big Five
Openness to experience
Conscientiousness
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism