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225 Cards in this Set

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NAME
is the master controling and communicating system of the body
nervous system
What are the functions of the nervous system? (3)
(1)sensory input (2)integration (3) motor output
NAME
functions in sensory input, integration, and motor output
nervous system
What does sensory input mean?
monitoring stimuli occuring inside and outside of the body
NAME
monitoring stimul occuring inside and outside of the body
sensory input
What is integration?
is the interpretion of sensory input
NAME
is the interpreation of sensory input
integration
What is motor output?
response to stimuli by activating effector organs
NAME
is response to stimuli by activating effector organs
motor output
Describe the process the of the nervous system if u want to drink a glass of water? (3)
(1)sensory input (2)integration (3)motor output
What does CNS stand for?
central nervous system
What are the parts of the CNS?
(1)brain and spinal cord
NAME
is the integration and command center
CNS
What is the CNS?
is the integration and command center
NAME
includes the brain and spinal cord
CNS
What does PNS stand For?
peripheral nervous system
What is the PNS?
carries messages to and from the spinal cord and brain
NAME
carries messages to and from the spinal cord and brain
PNS
What are the parts of the PNS?
paired spinal and cranial nerves
NAME
includes paired spinal and cranial nerves
PNS
What are the two functional divisions of the PNS?
(1)sensory division (2)motor divison
NAME
the two parts of this system are the sensory division and the motor division
PNS
Sensory division can also be called (1)
afferent
(1) can also be called afferent
Sensory division
Motor division can also be called (1)
efferent
(1) can also be called efferent
motor divsion
What fibers make up the sensory division? (2)
(1)sensory afferent fibers (2)viscreal afferent fibers
NAME
this division of the PNS is made up of sensory afferent fibers and viscreal affrent fibers
sensory division
What are sensery afferent fibers/
carry impulses from the skin, skeletal muscles, and joints to the brain
NAME
carry impulses from the skin, skeletal muscles, and joints to the brain
sensory afferent fibers
What are visceral afferent fibers?
transmit impulses from visceral organs to the brain
NAME
transmit impulses from the visceral organs to the brain
visceral afferent fibers
What is the motor divsion?
transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs
NAME
transmits impulses from the CNS to effector ograns
motor division
What are two divisions of the motor divison?
(1)somatic nervous system (2)ANS
What does ANS stand for?
autonomic nervous system
NAME
is divided into the somatic nervous system and the ANS
motor division
What is the somatic nervous system?
conscious control of skeletal muscles
NAME
is resonsible for the conscious control of skeletal muscles
somatic nerves system
What is the ANS?
regulates smooth, cardiac muscle, and glands
NAME
regulates smooth, cardiac muscle, and glands
ANS
What are the divsions of the ANS? (2)
(1)sympathetic (2)parasympathetic
NAME
the divisons of this divison are sympathetic, and parasympathetic
ANS
What are two prinicipl types of cells in the nervous system? (2)
(1)neurons (2)supporting cells
What are nuerons?
exictable cells that transmit electrical signals
NAME
are exictable cells that transmit electrical singals
neurons
What are supporting cells?
are cells that surround and wrap neurons
NAME
are cells that surround and wrap neurons
supporting cells
Supporting cells can also be called (1) or (2)
neuroglia or gila cells
(1) cells can also be called neurogila or gila cells
supporting cells
What are the functions of supporting cells? (4)
(1)provide a supportive scaffolding for nuerons (2)segregate and insulate neurons (3)guide young nuerons to the proper connection (4)promote health and growth
NAME
this cell provides a supportive scaffolding for neurons
supporting cells
NAME
segregate and insulate neurons
supporting cells
NAME
guide young neurons to the proper connections
supporting cells
NAME
promote health and growth
supporting cells
What are neurogila?
are supporting cells
NAME
are supporting cells
neurogila
What are astrocytes?
are the most abundant, versatile, and highly branched glial cells
NAME
are the most abundant, versatile, and highly branched glial cells
astrocytes
What are visceral afferent fibers?
transmit impulses from visceral organs to the brain
NAME
transmit impulses from the visceral organs to the brain
visceral afferent fibers
What is the motor divsion?
transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs
NAME
transmits impulses from the CNS to effector ograns
motor division
What are two divisions of the motor divison?
(1)somatic nervous system (2)ANS
What does ANS stand for?
autonomic nervous system
NAME
is divided into the somatic nervous system and the ANS
motor division
What is the somatic nervous system?
conscious control of skeletal muscles
NAME
is resonsible for the conscious control of skeletal muscles
somatic nerves system
What is the ANS?
regulates smooth, cardiac muscle, and glands
NAME
regulates smooth, cardiac muscle, and glands
ANS
What are the divsions of the ANS? (2)
(1)sympathetic (2)parasympathetic
NAME
the divisons of this divison are sympathetic, and parasympathetic
ANS
What are two prinicipl types of cells in the nervous system? (2)
(1)neurons (2)supporting cells
What are neurons?
are exictable cells that transmit electrical singals
NAME
are exictable cells that transmit electrical singals
neurons
What are supporting cells?
cells that surround and wrap around nuerons
NAME
are cells that surround and wrap around neurons
supporting cells
What are the functions of neurogila? (3)
(1)provide a supportive scaffolding for neurons (2)segregate and insulate neurons (3)guide young neurons to the proper connections (4)promote health and growth
NAME NEURON
provides a supportive scaffolding the neuron
neurogila
NAME NEURON
segregate and insulates neurons
neurogila
NAME NEURON
guide young nuerons to the proper connections
Neurogila
NAME NEURON
promote health and growth
Neurogila
What are neurogila?
supporting cells
NAME
are supporting cells
neurogila
(1) can be called neurogila or glial cells
supporting cells
supporting cells can be called (1) or (2)
(1)neurogila (2)glial cells
What are astrocytes?
they cling to nuerons and thier synaptic endings, and cover capillaries
NAME
they cling to neurons and thier synaptic endings, and cover the capillaries
astrocytes
NAME
are the most abundant, verstaile, and highly branched glial cells
astrocytes
Astrocytes are the most, (1) of (2)
(1)abundant, verstaile, and highly branched (2)glial cells
What are the functions of astrocytes?
support and brace the neurons (2)achor the neurons to thier nutrient supplies (3)guide migration of young neurons (4)control the chemical environment
(4)
NAME CELL
support and brace neurons
astrocytes
NAME CELL
anchor the neurons to thier nutrient supply
astrocytes
NAME CELL
guide migration of young neurons and control the chemical environment
astrocytes
What are microgila?
are phagocytes that monitor the health of nuerons
NAME
are phagocytes that monitor the health of neurons
microgila
What are ependymal cells?
they line the central cavities of the brain and spinal column
NAME
they line the central cavites of the brain and spinal column
ependymal cells
Describe the shape/structure of microgila?
are small ovoid cells w spiny processes
NAME
are small, ovoid cells w spiny processes
microgila
Describe the shape of ependymal cells?
range in shape from sqaumous to columnar
What are oligodendrocytes?
are branched cells that wrap CNS nerve fibers
NAME
are branched cells that wrap CNS nerve fibers
oligodendrocytes
What are schawnn cells?
surround fibers of the PNS
NAME
surround fibers of the PNS
Schwann cells
What are satellite cells?
surround neurons cell bodies w gangila
NAME
surround neurons cell bodies w gangila
satellite cells
What are the structural units of the nervous system? (3)
(1)body (2)axon (3)dendrites
NAME
is made up of body, axon, and dendrites
nervous system
Describe the live of the nervous system?
is long-lived amitioitic and has a high metabolic rate
NAME
is long lived amitiotic and has a high metabolic rate
nervous system
there is (1)singaling during devlopment
cell to cell
What plasma membrane function in nuerons is (2)
(1)electrical singaling (2)cell to cell singaling during devlopment
a Neurons (1) functions in electrical signaling and cell to cell signaling during development
plasma membrane
The nerve cell body contains the (1) and (2)
(1)nucleus (2)nucleolus
NAME
contains the nucleus and the nucelolus
nerve cell body
NAME
is the major biosynethic center
nerve cell body
the nerve cell body is the major (1)
biosynthetic center
What is the focal point for the outgrowth of nueral processes?
the nerve cell body
NAME
is the focal point for the outgrowth of neural processes
the nerve cell body
The nerve cell body is the focal point for the (1)
outgrowth of neural processes
Does the nerve cell body have centrioles?
no
T or F
the nerve cell body have centrioles
false
NAME
has no centrioles
the nerve cell body
NAME
contains a axon hilcok
the nerve cell body
The nerve cell body also contain a (1)
axon hilcok
What is a axon hilcok?
is a cone shaped area from which axons arise
NAME
is a cone shaped area from which axons arise
axon hilcok
What are processes?
are armlike extensions from the soma
NAME
are armlike extensions from the soma
processes
What are the processes called in the CNS?
tracts
NAME
are called tracts in the CNS
processes
NAME
are called nerves in the PNS
processes
What are the processes called the PNS?
nerves
What are the two different types of processes?
(1)axons (2)dendrites
Describe dendrites?
are short, tappering, and diffusely branched processes
NAME
are short tappering, and diffusely branched processes
dendrites
What are dendrites?
they are receptive, or input, regions of the neuron
NAME
are receptive, or input regions of the neuron
dendrites
NAME
in dendrties, electrical singals are conveyed as (1)
graded poteintals
long axons are called (1)
nerve fibers
What are nerve fibers?
are long axons
What are axons?
are slender processes of uniform diamter arising from the hilock
NAME
are slender processes a of uniform diamter arising from the hilock
axons
T or F
usally there is only one unbranched axon per neuron
true
Usally there is (1) unbranched axon per nueron
only one
Are are axon collaterals common?
no
What are axon colletrals?
are rare branches of axons
NAME
are rare branches of axons
axon colletrals
What is a axonal terminal?
are branched terminus of an axon
NAME
are branched terminus of an axon
axonal terminal
What are the functions of axons? (2)
(1)generate and transmit action potentials (2)secrete neurotransmitters from the axonal terminals
NAME
generate and transmit action potenitals
axons
NAME
secrete neurotransmitters from the axonal terminals
axons
What are two types of movement along the axon?
(1)anterograde (2)retrograde
What is anterograde?
movement toward the axonal terminal
NAME
is movement toward the axonal terminal
anterograde
What is retrograde?
is movement away from the axonal terminal
NAME
is movement away from the axonal terminal
retrograde
What is the myelin sheath?
is whittsh, fatty segmented sheath around most long axons
NAME
is whittish, fatty segmented sheath around most long axons
myelin sheaths
What are the functions of myelin sheaths? (3)
protect the axon (2)eletrically insulate fibers from one another (3)increase the speed of nerve impulse transmission
NAME
protects the axon
myelin sheath
NAME
electrically insulate fibers from one another
myelin sheath
NAME
increase the speed of nerve impulses transmission
myelin sheath
How are the myelin sheath and the neurilemma formed?
by the schawann cells in the PNS
(1) and (2) are formed by the schawann cells in the PNS
myelin sheath
What are three things that a schwann cell does? (3)
(1)envelopes an axon through a trough (2)encoles the axon w its plasma membrane, (3)has concentric layers of membrane that make up the myelin sheath
NAME
this cell will envelopes an axon in a trough, enclose the axon w its plasma membrane, and has concentric layers of membrane that make up the myelin sheath
schwann cells
NAME
has concentric layers of membrane that make up the myelin sheath
schwann cells
What are neurilemma?
are the remaining nucleus and cytplasm of a schwann cell
NAME
are the ramaining nucleus of cytoplasm of a schwann cell
neurilemma
Neurofibral Nodes are nodes of (1)
ranvier
NAME
are nodes of the ranvier
neurofibral nodes
What are neurofibral nodes?
are gaps in myelin sheath btwn adjacent schwann cells
NAME
are gaps in myelin sheath btwn adjacent schwann cells
neurofibral nodes
Neurofibral nodes are the site where (1)
axon collaterals can emerge
NAME
are sites where axon collateral can emerge
neurofibral nodes
What are unmyelinated axons?
a schwann cell surrounds nerve fibers but coiling does not take place
NAME
a schwann cell surrounds nerve fibers but coiling does not take place
unmyelinated axons
(1) paritally enclose 15 or more axons
schwann cells
what kinds of fibers does the CNS have? (2)
myelinated and unmyelinated fibers
How are myelin sheaths formed in teh CNS?
by oligodendrocytes
NAME
in the CNS, this is formed by oligodendrocytes
myelin sheaths
NAME
nodes of Ranvier are wide spread and there is no nuerilemma
axons of the CNS
Axons of the CNS, do they have nuerilemma?
no
What are two regions of the brain and spinal cord?
(1)gray matter (2)white matter
What is white matter?
is a dense collection of mylinated fibers
NAME
is a dense collection of myelinated fibers
white matter
What are gray matter?
are mostly soma and unmyelinated fibers
NAME
are mostly soma and unmyelinated fibers
gray matter
What are the different kinds of neurons based on strucutre? (3)
(1)multipolar (2)bipolar (3)unipolar
What are the different kinds of neurons based on function?(3)
sensory (2)motor (3)interneurons
NAME
include sensory, motor, and interneuron
functional nuerons
NAME
include multipolar, bipolar, and unipolar
structural nuerons
What are sensory?
transmit impulses toward the CNS
NAME
transmit impulses toward the CNS
sensory
NAME
carry impulses away from the CNS
motor
What are motor?
carry impulses away from the CNS
What are interneurons?
are shuttle singals through CNS pathways
NAME
are shuttle singals through CNS pathways
interneurons
Internuerons are also called (1)
association nuerons
(1) are also called association nuerons
interneurons
(1) are also called efferent
motor
Motor are also called (1)
efferent
(1) are also called sensory
afferent
Sensory are also called (1)
afferent
NAME
are highly irritable
neurons
Nuerons are highly (1)
irritable
What are action potiental or nerve impulses?
(1)eletrical impulses carried along the length of axons nervous system
NAME
are eletrical impulses carried along the length of axons
action potentials
NAME
are always the same regardless of stimulus
action potential
T or F
action potential or nerve impulses are the same regardless of stimulus
true
NAME
are the underlying functional feature of the nervous system
action potentials
What is voltage?
is the measure of the potential energy generated by separted charge
NAME
is the measure of the potential energy generated by separted charge
voltage
What is potenital difference?
is the voltage measured btwn two points
NAME
is the voltage measured btwn two points
potential difference
V =
voltage
What is current?
is the flow of eletrical charge btwn two points
NAME
is the flow of eletrical charge btwn two points
current
I=
current
Draw how the nervous system is divided up
Nervous
PNS CNS
Sensory Motor
ANS Somatic NS
Parasympathic parasympathic
What is the difference btwn motor and sensory ?
(1)sensory- transmits impulses toward CNS (2)motor= carrys impulses away from the CNS
What is the difference btwn Schawenn cells and satellite cells? (2)
(1)schawenn cells -surround fibers in the PNS (2)satellite cells- surround neurons cell bodies w gangilla