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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Organic Chemistry
is the study of compounds that contain the element carbon
These organic chemicals
affect virtually every facet of our lives, and for this reason, it is important and useful to know something about them
Methane the main component of natural gas burns in the presence of oxygen
is formed by the fermentation of sugar and can can produced in the lab exactly the same
the compound responsible for the spiciness of hot peppers is the active ingredient in several topical creams for pain
is the bitter-tasting stimulant found in coffee, tea,cola beverages and chocolate
All organic compounds contain
carbon atoms and most contain Hydrogen atoms. Carbon always forms four covalent bonds and hydrogen forms one covalent bond.
Carbon forms
single, double, and triple bonds to other carbon atoms
A Carbon atom surrounded by four atoms forms four single bonds
in Ethane (C2H6) each carbon atom is surrounded by three hydrogen atoms and connect together by a single bond
A Carbon atom surrounded by three atoms forms a double bond
In ethylene (C2H4) each carbon atom is surrounded by two hydrogen atoms and each Carbon atoms forms a double bond with each other
A Carbon atom surrounded by two atoms generally forms a triple bond
In acetylene (C2H2) each carbon atom is surrounded by two atoms one hydrogen and one carbon thus each carbon forms a single bond with the hydrogen atom and three with each carbon
Organic compounds may also contain elements than carbon and hydrogen
any atom that is not carbon or hydrogen is called a heteroatom
Each heteroatom forms a characteristic number of bonds
determined by its location in the periodic table
The common heteroatoms also have nonbonding
lone pairs of electrons, so that each atom is surrounded by eight electrons
The most common multiple bond between carbon and a heteroatom
is carbon oxygen double bond
Carbon forms four strong bonds with itself and other elements
Carbon atoms combine together to form rings and chains
An atom surrounded by two groups
is linear and had a bond angle of 180
An atom surrounded by three groups is
triangular planar
An atom surrounded by four groups places these four groups at the corners of a
tetrahedon giving bond angles of approximately 109.5
All carbons having four single bonds are
Don't forget about lone pairs of electrons on nitrogen and oxygen when determining the
shape around these atoms
all the atoms are drawn in
but the two-electron bond lines are generally omitted
lone pairs o heteratoms are omitted
A carbon bonded to
3h's becomes CH3
2H's become CH2
1H becomes CH
Assume there is a carbon atom
at the junction of any two lines or at the end of any line
Assume there are enough hydrogens
around carbon to give it four bonds
Draw in all heteroatoms and the hydrogens
directly bonded to them
A functional group is an atom or a group of atoms
with characteristic chemical and physical properties
A functional group contains a heteroatom
a multiple bond or sometimes both a heteroatom and a multiple bond
The most common functional groups can be subdivided into three types

Compounds containing a single bond to a heteroatom
Compounds containing a C=O group
Hydroxyl functional group
is an OH group that makes Ethanal
Hydrocarbons contain
only the elements of carbon and hydrogen
have only C-C single bonds and no functional group Ethane CH3CH3 is a simple alkane
have only C-C double bond as their functional group
Ethylene CH2+CH2 is a simple alkene
have a simple C-C triple bond as their functional group
Acetylene HCthree lines CH is a simple alkyne
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
contain a benezene ring a six membered ring with three double bonds
An Aldehyde
has a hydrogen atom bonded directly to the carbonyl carbon
A carboxylic acid
contains an OH group directly to the Carbonyl carbon
an ester contains
an OR group bonded directly to the carbonyl carbon
Organic compounds exist as discrete molecules
with much weaker intermolecular forces--the forces that exist between molecules--than those seen in ionic compounds which are held together by very strong interactions of oppositely charge ions
A covalent bond is nonpolar when two atoms
of identical or similar electronegativity are joined together thus C-C and C-H bonds are non polar bonds
A covalent bond is polar when atoms of different electronegativity
are joined together thus bonds between carbon and common heteroatoms (N O and the HAlogens) are polar bonds
The symbol theta+ is given to the less electronegative atom
usually C or H
the sybol theta - is given to the more electronegative atom
usually N, O, or a halogen
Hydrocarbons are
nonpolar molecules
If the individual bonds dipoles
cancel in a molecule , the molecule is nonpolar
Most organic compounds
are soluble in organic solvents
Hydro carbons and other nonpolar
organic compounds are not soluble in water
Polar organic compounds are
water soluble if they are small and contain a nitrogen or oxygen atom that can hydrogen bond with water
A fat soluble vitamin dissolves
in an organic solvent but is insoluable in water Fat-soluble vitamins have many nonpolar C-C and C-H bonds and few polar functional groups
A water soluble vitamin dissolves
in water Water soluble vitamins have many polar bonds