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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The study of changes in physiology, cognition and social behavior over the life span
developmental psychology
environmental agents that harm the embryo or fetus
a process whereby the synaptic connections in the brain that are frequently used are preserved, and those that are not are lost
synaptic pruning
the time in which certain experiences must occur for normal brain development, such as exposure to visual information during infancy for the normal development of the visual pathways of the brain
critical period
a strong emotional connection that persists over time and accross circumstances
the tendency for humans to pay more attention to novel stimuli
orienting reflex
hypothetical cognitive structures that help us perceive, organize, process, and use information
the process by which a new experience is placed into an existing schema
the process by which a schema is adapted or expanded to incorporate a new experience that does not easily fit into an existing schema
The first stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development, during which infants aquire information about the world through their senses and respond reflexively
sensorimotor stage
the understanding that an object continues to exist even when it cannot be seen
object permanence
the second stage in piaget's theory of cognitive development, during which children think symbolically about objects, but reason is based on appearance rather than logic
preoperational stage
third stage in piaget's theory of cognitive development, during which children begin to think about and understand operations in ways that are reversible
concrete operational stage
the final stage in piaget's theory of cognitive development; it involves the ability to think abstractly and to formulate and test hyptotheses through deductive logic
formal operational stage
the inability to remember events from early childhood
infantile amnesia
a type of amnesia that occurs when a person remembers an event but cannot remember where they encountered the information
source amnesia
the term used to describe the ability to explain and predict other people's behavior as a result of recognizing their mental state
theory of mind
the tendency for childern to speak using rudimentary sentences that are missing words and grammatical markings but follow a logical syntax
telegraphic speech
the maturation of skills or abilities that enable people to live in a world with other people
social development
the transitional period between childhood and adulthood
a term that refers to the culturally constructed differences between males and females
personal beliefs about whether one is male or female
gender identity
the characteristics associated with men and women because of cultural influencing or learning
gender roles
cognitive structures that influence how people perceive the behaviors of men and women
gender schemas
smallest units of sound, alphabet, combinations, vowels that signal a difference in meaning between words
smallest unit of meaning (ex girls *s makes plural)
words arranged into meaningful words
how to engage in conversation
child shows distress when caregiver leaves but is glad when returns
secure attachment
high distress when separated; reestablishes contact with caregiver but resists their efforts to comfort
insecure anxious/resistent attachment
low distress when separated, ignores caregiver upon return
insecure anxious/ avoidant
parent-child relationship with high control and low responsiveness
parent child relationship with high control and high responsiveness
ensures efficient interaction with environment (even balance of assimilation and accomodation)
understanding that certain physical characteristics of an objects stay the same even when appearance changes
thinking that others perceive things the same way that you do