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27 Cards in this Set

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adenylyl cyclase
An enzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP in response to a signal.
amplification
The strengthening of stimulus energy during transduction.
apoptosis
A program of controlled cell suicide, which is brought about by signals that trigger the activation of a cascade of suicide proteins in the cell destined to die.
biofilm
A surface-coating colony of one or more species of prokaryotes that engage in metabolic cooperation.
cyclic AMP (cAMP)
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, a ring-shaped molecule made from ATP that is a common intracellular signaling molecule (second messenger) in eukaryotic cells. It is also a regulator of some bacterial operons.
cytoplasm
The contents of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus and bounded by the plasma membrane.
diacylglycerol (DAG)
A second messenger produced by the cleavage of a certain kind of phospholipid in the plasma membrane.
epinephrine
A catecholamine that, when secreted as a hormone by the adrenal medulla, mediates “fight-or-flight” responses to short-term stresses
G protein
A GTP-binding protein that relays signals from a plasma membrane signal receptor, known as a G protein-coupled receptor, to other signal transduction proteins inside the cell.
gap junction
A type of intercellular junction in animals that allows the passage of materials between cells.
glycogen
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals - the animal equivalent of starch.
growth factor
(1) A protein that must be present in the extracellular environment (culture medium or animal body) for the growth and normal development of certain types of cells. (2) A local regulator that acts on nearby cells to stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation
inositol trisphosphate (IP3)
A second messenger that functions as an intermediate between certain nonsteroid hormones and a third messenger, a rise in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration.
ligand
A molecule that binds specifically to another molecule, usually a larger one.
ligand-gated ion channel
A protein pore in cellular membranes that opens or closes in response to A signaling chemical (its ligand), allowing or blocking the flow of specific ions.
local regulator
A secreted molecule that influences cells near where it is secreted.
nitric oxide (NO)
A gas produced by many types of cells that functions as a local regulator and as a neurotransmitter.
protein kinase
An enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein, thus phosphorylating the protein.
receptor tyrosine kinase
A receptor protein in the plasma membrane, the cytoplasmic (intracellular) part of which can catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to a tyrosine on another protein. Receptor tyrosine kinases often respond to the binding of a signaling molecule by dimerizing and then phosphorylating a tyrosine on the cytoplasmic portion of the other receptor in the dimer. The phosphorylated tyrosines on the receptors then activate other signal transduction proteins within the cell.
scaffolding protein
A type of large relay protein to which several other relay proteins are simultaneously attached, increasing the efficiency of signal transduction.
second messenger
A small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecule or ion, such as a calcium ion (Ca2+) or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cell’s interior in response to a signaling molecule bound by a signal receptor protein.
signal transduction
The linkage of a mechanical, chemical, or electromagnetic stimulus to a specific cellular response.
signal transduction pathway
A series of steps linking a mechanical or chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response.
testosterone
A steroid hormone required for development of the male reproductive system, spermatogenesis, and male secondary sex characteristics
transcription factor
A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and affects transcription of specific genes.
transduction
(1) A type of horizontal gene transfer in which phages (viruses) carry bacterial DNA from one host cell to another. (2) In cellular communication, the conversion of a signal from outside the cell to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response.
yeast
Single-celled fungus that reproduces asexually by binary fission or by the pinching of small buds off a parent cell