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9 Cards in this Set

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Def: The process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converted into a specific cellular response. (202)
Signal Transduction Pathway
Def: Messenger molecules that only travel a short distance. (202)
Local regulators
What are the three types of cell communication in animals, and how do they communicate (203)
a) paracrine signaling - a secreting cell acts on nearby target cell by discharging molecules of a local regulator into the extracellular fluid.
b)synaptic signaling - a nerve cell releases neurotransmitter molecules into a synapse, stimulating the target cell.
c)hormonal signaling - specialized endocrine cells secrete hormones into body fluids, often the blood. Hormones may reach all the body cells.
Def: A plasma membrane receptor that works with the help of a G protein. (206)
G-protein-linked receptors
Name 4 steps that g-protein receptors undergo. (206)
1)When GDP(used GTOP) is bound to the G protein, it is inactive.
2)When the appropriate signal molecule binds to the extracellular side of the receptor, the receptor changes shape, and binds to a g-protein, which consequently activates.
3) The activated G protein dissociates from the receptor, then binds to an enzyme to alter its activity.
4) Right after, the G-protein uses up the GTP, then returns to its original position.
Def: an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups. (207)
Name the 3 steps in receptor tyrosine kinases signal transduction. (207)
1)The binding of a signal molecule causes two receptor polypeptides to associate closely with each other, forming a dimer. (<dimerization!)
2) Dimerizatino activates the tyrosine-kinase region of each polypeptide. Each tyrosine-kinase adds a phosphate from an ATP molecule to a tyrosine on the tail o the other polypeptide.
3)It is then recognized by specific relay proteins. Each protein binds to a specific phosphorylated tyrosine, undergoing activation.
Describe the structure of a receptor tyrosine kinase. (207)
they exist as individual polypeptides, with an extracellular binding site, an alpha helix spanning the membrane, and an intracellular tail containing muliple tyrosines.
Def: When a series of different molecules in a pathway are phosphorylated in turn, each molecule adding a phosphate group to the next one in line. (209)
Phosphorylation cascade.