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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
genetics
-scientific study of heredity
-core of revolution in understanding biology
fertilization
-male and female reproductive cells join
-produces a new cell, which develops into a tiny embryo encase within a seed
true-breeding
term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate
pollination
transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure
trait
specific characteristic that varies one individual to another
hybrid
offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
gene
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
alleles
one of a number of different forms of a gene
segregation
separation of alleles during gamete formation
gametes
specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction
probability
likelihood that a particular event will occur
Punnett square
diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
homozygous
term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
heterozygous
term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait
phenotype
physical characteristics of an organism
genotype
genetic makeup of an organism
independent assortment
independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes
incomplete dominance
situation in which one allele is not completely dominate over another
codominance
situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of an organism
multiple alleles
three or more alleles of the same gene
polygenic traits
trait controlled by two or more genes
homologous
term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corrosponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
dipliod
term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous of the body
hapliod
term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes
meiosis
process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
tetrad
structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
crossing over
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
gene map
diagram showing the relative locations of each known gene on a particular chromosome
F1 cross
first filial
F2 cross
self pollination