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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
______ allows info. to be sent along a plasma membrane and across the body.
action potential
_____ allows you to slowly breakdown fats.
_____ occurs when the muscle does not have time to relax completely between twitches, and the force of each twitch builds on the previous one.
incomplete tetanus
____ occurs when the muscle does not have time to relax at all between stimuli and exhibits a state of continual contraction. Tension declines as the muscle fatigues.
complete tetanus
What is the total elapsed time for a single myofiber twitch?
extremely variable 7-100 msec
_____ is a depression in a muscle fiber where it has synaptic contact with a nerve fiber and has a high density of neurotransmitter receptors.
motor end plate
Vesicular release is the release of ACH into synapse which then opens ___ channels.
______ is the process of bringing more motor units into play.
motor unit summation
% of _______ that are ultimately recruited determines the strength of contraction.
In _______ response a muscle contracts completely or not at all
all-or-nothing response
In _______ response greater stimuli elicit a greater response.
How does exercise and pre-conditioning affect the potential maximal force generation?
makes more actin and myosin in myofibers
phases of myofiber depolarization and contraction
1) arrival of stimulus at motor end plate
2) latent period
3) contraction phase
4) relaxation phase
_____ is a delay between the onset of the stimulus and the onset of the twitch.
latent period
In the _____ phase muscle begins to produce external tension and move a resisting object.
In the ______ phase as Ca2+ level in the cytoplasm falls, myosin releases the thin filaments and muscle tension declines.
relaxation phase
What does Myathinia gravis destroy?
The toxins, ________, bind to acetylcholinesterase and prevent it from degrading ACH.
cholinesterase inhibitors
_____ is independent stimuli that shows increasing levels of force
_____ is the result from 1 wave of contraction added to another.
wave summation
amount of ATP in body
1 gram
How do we maintain adequate ATP supplies in active muscle when there is so little ATP present at any one time?
recycle ATP
_____ breaks down sugar
Where does glycolysis occur?
_____ breaks down fat
oxidative phosphorylation
Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?
_____ pulls electrons away, H becomes CO2; also area where most ATP is produced.
fatty acid oxidation
ATP and CP, called ______, provide nearly all the energy used for short bursts of intense activity
What does phosphocreatine + ADP produce?
ATP + creatine
What is this process?
Cardiac cells depolarize for long period and do not have the quick twitches that are characteristic of _______ muscle.
function of gap junction in cardiac cells
for Na+ entry to depolarize
Cardiac myocyte membranes become leaky to Na+ and K+ such that it causes pacemaker cells to depolarize. This pacemaker activity is called ________.
The depolarization in cardiac myocytes is passed on to all neighbors via _______.
gap junctions
_________ modifies the function of the pacemaker cells (heart rate) and the amount of Ca++ that enter during contraction (force of contraction)
autonomic nervous system
Can the autonomic nervous system tell heart when to turn on and off?
No,it can just tell the heart to speed up or slow down
Why do cardiac cells need more ATP and more mitochondria than the typical skeletal muscle cell?
b/c cardiac cells work 24/7
Anything in body with a tube, will probably be what type of muscle?
Is smooth muscle connnected by gap junctions?
They may or may not be.
In skeletal and cardiac muscle the actin and myosin are organized into _____ b/c they have striations.
Where is the actin and myosin attached to in smooth muscle cells?
plasma membrane and sarcoplasm (no striations)
Does smooth muscle use more or less ATP?
Which type of muscle tissue has fewer mitochondria and relies more on glycolysis?
What happens to the diameter when smooth muscle shortens?
gets smaller
What type of muscle tissue is found in the blood vessels, glands, and guts?
Smooth muscle cells use calcium entry/calmodulin binding as a signal to activate ______
myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)
In smooth muscle ______ phosphorolates myosin letting it bind actin and contract.
2 things that have to be removed for smooth muscle cell to relax
When a person has asthma there is excess _____ of airways.
The solutionn for asthma is to promote dilation by reducing ________.
smooth muscle contraction
______ is due to excess contraction of blood vessel
high blood pressure
solution for high blood pressure
vasodilator drugs
In low blood pressure there isn't enough _____ tone in blood vessels.
A solution for low blood pressure is to ____ blood vessels to push blood back to heart.
peristaltic waves in the intestine propel _____.
Often the contractions of peristaltic waves in the intestines are not strong enough which leads to ______.
What nutrient is a person lacking if they suffer from constipation?
solution if someone suffers from hypermotile intestine (diarrhea)
reduce intestinal SCM contractile force
If someone has a hyperactive bladder, they should improve _______.
receptive relaxation
______ is the lowest stimulus to which muscle can respond.
______ is beyond which an increase in voltage will not cause an increase in force.
maximal response