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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
self-concept clarity
The extent to which self-beliefs are: clearly and confidently defined, internally consistent and stable (Canadians higher that Japs)
essential self
key descriptors used, would you still be you if you weren't...?
development of the essential self
13% kindergartners, 24% second graders, 74% adults
Neisser's Kinds of Self knowledge
perceptual; interactional; private; narrative; conceptual
James' Self: The "I"
The self as knower/experiencer: subjective. Agency, uniqueness, continuity, meta-awareness
James' Self: The "me"
The self as known/experienced: objective. Material me, social me, spiritual me.
general vs. domain specific
Daniel Stern and language
It drives a wedge between two simultaneous forms of interpersonal experience: as it is lived and as it is verbally expressed
"me" of early childhood
physical, active, little mention of others or psychological processes
The "I" of early childhood
uniqueness and continuitity: based primarity on bodily attributes
Children's use of "I"
frequently (at dinner and in lab), 50% psychological (I want, I think), negative (can and know)
Imaginary friends, why?
Boys: hero- to have ego ideal or ideal self to identify with
Girls: to nurture-to have an alter that you care for, that needs you
the "me" of late childhood
physical is less prominent, less specific active, comparisons with others, psychological clearly distinguished from physical
The "I" of late childhood
Uniqueness and continuity: based increasingly on psychological attributes; integration of multiple attributes
Loevinger's Ego Development
the higher the stage the better; from egocentric to flexible; development associated with openness
looking glass self
self as seen through the eyes of others (eg imaginary friends)
generalized other
the "audience" you think is watching you
extent to which a person tends to modify behavior in response to external demands and contingencies
high self monitors
more uncommitted/unattached sexual relationships
possible selves
not a single self, but many possible selves; a self to strive for
self discrepancy: Domains
actualy self, ought self and ideal self
self discrepancy: Affect
disappointment, shame, guilt and fear.
self discrepancy: Affect depends on
availability: discrepancy between actual self and mother's ideal; accessibility: how often do I think about wheter I am meeting my mother's ideals
discrepancies: origins
adopted early in life from interactions with parents: parents bemoan lost hopes, conditions of worth, strict and overcontrolling parents
self discrepancy: therapy implications
work to change actual/own self concept; change self guides and change accessibility by avoiding certain situations that expose discrep.
undesired self
often based on real experiences, therefore more concrete.
undesired self: gender differences
males more defensive; 50% female worst self-involving family (3% males), 90% females worst self- involving relationships (30% males)
undesired self: therapy implications
Instead of trying to change the actual, ought or ideal selves, focus on determining the source and power of the undesired self
the self you are with others; can be very similar or very different; related to self-monitoring and social self
Overview: Erikson's theory
Life-span personality development; important, dramatic events/incidents; "Who am I" key question; acheiving identity is psychosocial acheivement; lives are legacies for coming generations
Triple bookkeeping
somatic (body) including drives; ego- how you cope with drives and make sense of the world; societal-individual embedded in larger social world
Erikson vs Freud
Erikson is an optimist; believes in retrospective determiniism, meaning you construct your past, narrative psychology
Erikson: stage theory
each stage presents challenge/asks question; mastery of each stage+ positive adjustment; old stages appear in different forms.
Erikson: early stages
basic trust vs. mistrust; autonomy vs. shame/doubt; initiative vs. guilt; industry vs. inferiority
Erikson: key stage
identity vs. role confusion Who am I?
Process of indentity formation
thoughout childhood, many identities, normative crisis, reject and select specific identities.
Erikson: prerequisites for identity
Vertical on chart: unipolarity (trust), bipolarity (autonomy), play identification (initiative), work identification (industry)
Erikson: Repeats
Horizontal: time perspective (trust), self-certainty (autonomy), role experimentation (initiative), anticipation of achievement (industry), sexual identity (intimacy)
Identity statuses
exploration to commitment: occupational goals, idealogy (political, religious), autonomy
identities de novo
creating new identities, needing a fake past?
negative identities
identifications and roles that were presented as undesirable or dangerous, yet real
Erikson measure
findings: identity, intimacy, generativity increase with age; scale pos. correlated with well being; females score higher on intimacy (correlation with identity stronger); males score higher on autonomy, initiative and industry.
Ekikson: stages in adulthood
intimacy vs. isolation, only after reasonable sense of indentity established. for some, "I am who I'm with"
Marcia's Identity Statuses
Identity achievement (full look then found), moratorium (still looking), forclosure (quick look, choice made), identity diffusion (haven't begun to look)
Josselson's research
pathmakers=identity achievment; searchers=moratorium; guardians=forclosure; drifter=diffusion
Gender differences in identity and intimacy
women may depend less on occupational factors and more on relationship factors; forclosure may be adaptive for women; women score higher on intimacy measures
Generativity: Definition
to invest in forms of life and work that will outlive the self
Generativity: domains
Biological, cultural, parental technical
Erikson: the last stage
Ego integrity: accepting your life for what it is (the good and the bad)
vs. despair: lack of acceptance, fear of death.
Life review
looking back, settling accounts; ego integrity or despair
Identity constraints vs. content
constraints: structural requirements; content: religious, political beliefs and career goals.
Life review and acceptance
Life review not a requirement for acceptance for everyone.