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60 Cards in this Set

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Acid
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of water; a substance with a pH less than 7.0.
Active Transport
The movement of a solute across a membrane from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration.
Aerobic Metabolism
Metabolism that occurs with oxygen.
Afterload
The pressure the ventricular muscles must generate to overcome the higher pressure in the aorta.
Anaerobic Metabolism
Metabolism without oxygen
Anaphylactic Shock?
A form of shock caused by exposure to a substance to which the patient is extremely allergic.
Anion?
An ion with a negative charge.
Antibody?
A protein developed in the body in response to an antigen.
What is Antigen?
A protein found on the membrane of red blood cells that triggers the formation of an antibody.
What is Baroreceptors?
Sensory nerve endings that adjust blood pressure as a result of vasodilation or vasoconstriction.
Base?
A substance that decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions' a substance with a pH of greater than 7.0.
Cardiogenic Shock?
A form of shock caused by profound failure of the heart. Causes: Severe myocardial infarction, Severe heart failure, Trauma cousing excessive pressure on the heart.
What are Cations?
An ion with a positve charge.
Contractility?
The extent and velocity (quickness_ of muscle fiber shortening.
What is Diffusion?
The movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
What is Electrolytes?
Salts, which when dissolved in a solvent break up into ions that are capable of conducting an elecrical current.
What are Erythrocytes?
Red Blood cells
What is Extracellular Fluid?
Fluid found outside of the cell membranes.
What is Facilitated Diffusion?
A specialised "transport protein" with a binding site specific to one substance binds with a molecule of that substance and moves across the cell membrane.
What is Fick Princple?
Four Elements of the Fick principle are adequate concentration of insired oxygen, onlading of oxygen to the red blood cells at the lungs, delivery of the red blood cells to the tisue cells, and off-laoding of oxygen from the red blood cells to the tissue cells.
Hematocrit?
The volume percentage of red blood cells in whole blood.
Histamine?
A compund released by the body during an allergic reaction.
Hypertonic Solution
A solution that has an osmotic pressure greater than that of normal body fluid.
Hypoperfusion?
SHOCK! means deficient or hypoperfusion syndrome.
Hypoperfusion syndrome?
Shock is sometimes referred to as hypoperfusioin ( hypo means deficient)
Hypotonic solution?
A solution that has an osmotic pressure less than that of normal body fluid.
Hypovolemic Shock?
A form of shock caused by the loss of blood or fluid volume from the body.
Interstitial Fluid?
Fluid found outside of the blood vessels in the spaces between the body's cells.
Intracellular Fluid?
Fluid found within individual cells.
Intravascular Fluid?
Fluid found within the vascular system; comprises the fluid portion of blood; plasma.
Hemoglobin?
A protein that bonds oxygen to red blood cells.
Isotonic Solution?
A solution that has an osmotic pressure equal to the osmotic pressure of normal body fluid.
Leukocytes?
White Blood Cells
Metabolic Acidosis?
A condition in which the level of bicarbonate is low in relation to the levels of carbonic acid.
Metabolic Alkalosis?
A condition in which the level of bicarbonate is high in relation to the level of carbonic acid.
Milliequivalent?
is the concentration of electrolytes in a certain volume of solution (in this case 1L) based on the number of available ionic charges.
Neurogenic Shock?
A form of shock in which the nervous system is no longer able to control the diameter of the blood vessels.
OSMOSIS?
The movement of water across a semipermeable membrane.
PERFUSION?
The process by which oxygenated blood is delivered to the body's tissue and wastes are removed from the tissue.
PERMEABILITY?
The degree to which a substance is allowed to pass through a cell membrane.
pH?
A measure of relative hydrogen/ion concentration.
PLASMA?
The fluid or water portion of the blood.
PLATELETS?
Formed elements suspended in plasma that are essential to blood clotting.
PHEUMATIC ANTISHOCK GARMENT?
An inflatable garment sometimes used on patients with severely low blood pressure or unstable pelvic fracture.
PRELOAD?
The passive stretching force exerted on the ventricular muscle at the end of diastole.
PSYCHOGENIC SHOCK?
is simple fainting The blood vessels dialate , allowing blood pooling. This shock corrects itself, when the person passes out and the blood pooling decreases.
RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS?
An increase in the blood CO2 a decrease in the blood pH, and a surplus of carbonic acid that results from a decrease in the exhalation of carbon dioxide.
RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS?
A decrease in the vlood CO2, an increase in blood pH, and a deficiency of carbonic acid that rsults from an increase in the exhalation of carbon dioxide.
Rh Factor?
An antigen factor considered during blood typing.
SEMIPERMEABLE?
Cell membranes that allow only certain substances to pass through them.
SEPTIC SHOCK?
A form of shock cuased by an infection resulting in a massive vasodlation of the circulatory system.
SHOCK?
Shock is the body's response to poor perfusion.
SOLUTES?
A substance dissolved in a solution.
SOLVENT?
A dissolving substance, usually a liquid.
STROKE VOLUME?
The amount of blood pumped into the cardiovascular system as a result of one heart contraction.
What are the three stages of shock?
Compensated (nonprogressive) Shock, Decompensated (progressive) Shock and Irreversible Shock.
What are the different signs and sympotoms of shock?
ssdfg
What is Starling's Law?
The increase in the force of myocardial contraction caused by stretching of myocardial muscles is referred to as "Starling's law"
List the three primary components of the cardiovascular system?
Heart, Blood Vessels, and Blood.
List four elements necessary for oxygenation to occur at the tissue level?
1. adaquate cardiac function
2. Good blood volume & flow through Blood vessels
3. Close space between tissue cells to capillaries to allow for diffusion of oxygen.
4. Ideal conditions of pH and temperture.