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36 Cards in this Set

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anticline, p. 308
A fold that is convex upward. Some anticlines are so eroded that all that can be seen on the surface of the earth is the trace of the fold limbs. Compare with syncline.
an anticline resembles an arch
basin, p 311
A synclinal structure, roughly circular in its outcrop pattern, in which beds dip gently toward the center from all directions.
basins are sometimes called doubly plunging synclines.
brittle failure, p 306
Structural behavior in which a material deforms permanently by fracturing.
brittle failure usually occurs suddenly
compressional stress, p 303
Any differential stress that shortens a rock body
deformation, p 302
general term referring to all changes in the original form of a rock body, or the original size of a rock body, or both
deformation can be caused either by compression or extension. It includes faulting, shearing, and folding.
detatchment fault, p 315
a nearly horizontal underground fault separating rocks exhibiting ductile deformation from rocks exhibiting brittle deformation. These faults may extend laterally for distances of fifty miles.
differential stress, p 303
forces that are unequal in different directions
dip, p. 308
The angle that a rock or a structural surface such as a bedding plane or fault surface makes with the horizontal. Dips are always measured perpendicular to the strike and measured in refernce to the vertical plane.
dip-slip fault, p 314
A fault on which the movement is parallel to the dip of the fault plane
dip-slip faults show fault scarps.
dome, p 311
An uplift or anticlinal structure, roughly circular in its outcrop exposure, in which beds dip gently away from the center in all directions.
domes are sometimes called doubly plunging anticlines
ductile deformation, p 306
Structural behavior in which a material deforms permanently without fracturing
ductile deformation involves reversible solid state flow. This type of deformation often occurs at depths where both temperatures and confining pressures are high.
fault, p. 312
The surface of rock rupture along which there has been differential movement of the rock on either side.
fault-block mountain, p 314
Mountain bounded by one or more faults. The mountain mass is created either by the uplift of land between faults or the subsidence of land outside the faults. These uplifts and downdrops are horsts and grabens.
The Basin and Range of the western USA is a cluster of fault block mountains.
fault scarp, p 314
The fault scarp is a cliff-like feature on the surface of the earth that looks like a step. It is caused by vertical or oblique slip on the fault.
The scarp is the exposed above-ground surface of the fault. Scarps erode away over time.
fold, p 308
A bent layer of rock or a bent series of layers of rock that was originally horizontal and deformed by compressive forces.
force, p 302
A force is a "push" or "pull" experienced by a mass m when it is accelerated.
The mass can be at rest initially, or in motion and accellerated or decellerated by the force.
graben, p 315 omit
A valley caused by extension of the Earth's crust. Grabens are formed by the downward displacement of a fault-bounded block.
OMIT for 2006
The faults bordering grabens are always normal faults because they develop in areas of extension.
hogback, p 311 OMIT
A sharp ridge with steeply sloping sides, produced by erosion of the broken edges of highly tilted strata.
OMIT FOR 2006 Hogbacks are made of rock that are more resistant to erosion than adjacent rocks in the area.
horst, p 315 OMIT
An elongate, relatively uplifted crustal unit or block bounded by faults on its long sides. Compare with "graben"
OMIT FOR 2006 As with grabens, the faults bounding horsts are always normal faults because horsts and grabens form in areas of extension.
joint, p 320
A surface of fracture in a rock without displacement
There is no movement along the fracture in a joint.
klippe, p. 318 OMIT
a surficial remnant of a thrust sheet that has been isolated by erosion
OMIT FOR 2006 klippes are geological features found only in thrust fault terranes, where a mass of exotic stata has been thrust over an area. The klippe itself is an isolated rock unit that is a fragment of the thrust sheet that has not been eroded away.
monocline, p 310
A simple stairstep fold, described as a one-limbed flexure. On both sides of a monocline, the stata are flat-lying or only gently dipping.
monoclines can be very subtle structures difficult to define in outcrop pattern.
normal fault, p 314
A dip-slip fault on which the hanging wall block is offset downward relative to the foot wall block. Compare with reverse fault
normal faults often have fault scarps that are eroded away over time
reverse fault, p 314
A dip-slip fault on which the hanging wall block is offset upward relative to the foot wall block. Compare with normal fault .
rock structure, p 307
all features created by the processes of deformation, ranging from minor fractures in bedrock to a mjaor mountain chain.
shear, p. 303
stresses that cause two adjacent parts of a body to slide past one another
The slippage occurring between individual playing cards when the top of the stack is moved relative to the bottom is "shear".
strain, p 304
irreversible changes in the shape or size of a rock body caused by stress
stress, p 302
force applied to a given area
stress acts on solid surfaces only. Gasses and liquids cannot be stressed.
strike, p 308
The compass direction of the intersection between a structural surface (e.g., a rock's bedding plane or a fault surface) and the horizontal
strike is always perpendicular to dip.
strike-slip fault, p 319
A fault on which the movement is horizontal.
Strike slip faults are called lateral or transform faults. Movement is parallel to the fault's strike.
syncline, p 308
A fold that is convex downward. Compare with anticline.
Some synclines are so eroded that all that can be seen on the surface of the earth is the trace of the fold limbs.
tensional stress, p 303
Any force that elongates or pulls apart a rock unit
also makes the unit thinner
thrust fault, p 317
A low-angle reverse fault
some definitions make the cut-off point at 15 degrees, and not 45 degrees, as stated in your text.
transform fault, p 319
A plate boundary that ideally shows pure strike-slip movement. Associated with the offset segments of midocean ridges.
Lithosphere is neither created nor destroyed at transform faults. It is merely "moved elsewhere".
structural geologist
a scientist studying the architecture and processes responsible for deformation of Earth’s crust
elastic deformation
Non-permanent structural deformation during which the amount of deformation (strain) is proportional to the stress
if you apply stress, and then remove the stress, and if the rock returns to size and shape it had originally, then elastic deformation has taken place