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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
gram neg rods acquired through respiratory tract
1. Haemophilus influenzae
2. Bordatella pertussis
3. Legionella pneumophilia
Haemophilus labs
gram neg rod

culture on chocolate agar + Factors V & X

haem --> blood loving --> require Factor X (hematin) & Factor V (hematin)

if kid has h flu, mom goes to Five and Dime to buy Chocolate!
Haemophilus influenzae
- transmission
- virulence factors
transmission: respiratory (aerosol)

1. Capsule
type b = bad = invasive
(there are also nonencapsulated strains called "nontypeable" which may colonize or cause local infection ie otitis media)

2. IgA protease
Nontypeable influenzae
- diseases
- localized infections ie otitis media in children

- COPD exacerbation (affect weakened adults w/ lung dz)
Haemophilus influenzae type b
- diseases
- vaccine
- treatment
1. Epliglottis- DANGEROUS!
2. Meningitis (esp 6 mo-3y like N meningitidis)
3. Otitis media
4. Pneumonia
5. Septic arthritis (most common cause in INFANTS!)
6. Sepsis- infants, asplenic ppl

vaccine is CONJUNGATED ie diphtheria/tetanus toxoid, given 2-18mo

tx- ceftriaxone (for less serious infection ie otitis media can try amoxicillin)
ppx = rifampin
- cause
- symptoms
- differential
- treatment
Haemophilus ducreyi

PAINFUL ulcer + PAINFUL swollen LN's filled w/ pus

(syphilis ulcer/LNs are painless; herpes lesions are painful but have systemic symptoms ie myalgias/fevers; lymphogranuloma venereum-chlamydia trachomatis- has painless LNs and ulcer disappears before adenopathy)

tx- single dose azithromycin or ceftriaxone
clinically important haemophilus spp
1. Haemophilus influenze
2. Haemophilus ducreyi
3. other ie H parainfluenze, H aphrophilus, H paraphrophilus----HACEK (subacue endocarditis)!
Gardnerella vaginalis
- labs
- diseases/sx
- tx
gram neg rod (formerly in Haemophilus group)

bacterial vaginitis
- fishy odor
- clue cells

tx- metronidazole
Bordatella pertussis
- labs
- virulence factors
gram neg rod; does not grow on cotton so collect with calcium alginate swab & grow on Bordet-Gengou medium (or ELISA/PCR)

1) Pertussis toxin- A-B;activates Gs --> cAMP --> bad stuff
2) Excretes adenylate cyclase --> WBCs swallow --> cAMP --> imparied chemotaxis & free radical generation
3) Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA)- pili rod helps bind to bronchial cells
4) Tracheal cytotoxin- destroys cells, impairs clearance
whooping cough
- name of organism
- stages
- treatment
Bordetella pertussis

1. catarrhal stage- URI, low fever; highly contagious!
2. Paroxysmal stage- coughing bursts + whoop (esp babies)
(may not have whoop esp if partially immunized)
3. Convalescent stage- fewer attacks; not contagious

tx = supportive
contacts = erythromycin (may decrease shedding also but doesn't change course)
DPT vaccine
- diptheria
- pertussis
- tetanus
Legionella pneumophilia
- labs
- unique characteristics
- transmission
- diseases
- tx
Labs- gram neg rod but doesn't stain well so use silver stain; grow on charcoal yeast extract culture w/ Fe & cysteine! (French legionnaire w/ SILVER helmet sitting around a CHARCOAL campfire with Fe dagger- he is not a CYSTEINE)

-facultative INTRACELLULAR-survives in macrophages

- from WATER sources (ie a/c system)---NO human-human transmission!!

1. Legionnaires' disease- severe lobar pneumonia + high fever +/- other sx ie abdom pain, diarrhea, confusion, electrolyte abnormalities

2. Pontiac fever = mild flu

Tx- erythromycin (or azithro, doxy, moxi etc--"atypical")
atypical pneumonia bugs & tx
- viral pneumonia
- Legionella pneuophilia
- Mycoplasma
- Chlamydia

tx= macrolides (azithro, clarithro, erythro), tetracyclines (doxy), quinolones (moxi, levo)