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53 Cards in this Set

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The use of sociology to solve problems - from the micro level of family relationshipts to the macro level of crime and polution
Applied Sociology
Karl Marx's term for capitalists, those who won the menas to produce wealth
Bourgeoisie
Marx's term for the struggle between the prletariat (workers) and the bourgeoisie (capitalist)
Class Conflict
Those things that "everyone knows" are true
Common Sense
A theoretical framework in which society is views as composed of groups competing for scarce resources
Conflict Theory
A theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that, when fulfulled, contributes to society's equilibrium; also know as functionalism and structural functionalism
Functional Analysis
A statement that goes beyond the individual case and is applied to a broader group or situation
Generalization
The extensive interconnections among nations dut to the expansion of capitalism
Globalization
Capitalism (investing to make profits within a rational system) becoming the globe's dominant economic system
Globalization of Capitalism
An examination of large scale patterns of society
Macro-Level Analysis
An examination of small-scale patterns of society
Micro-Level Analysis
The intellectual and academic disciplines designed to comprehend,, explain, and predict events in our natural environment
Natural Sciences
Communication with words through gestures, space silence, and so on
Nonverbal Interaction
Total neutrality
Objectivity
Recurring characteristics or events
Patterns
The application of the scientific approach to the social world
Positivism
Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
Proletarist
Sociological research whose only purpose in to make discoveries about life in human group, not to make changes in those groups
Pure or Basic Sociology
Repeating a sudy in order to check its findings
Replication
The application of systematic methods to obtain knowledge and the knowledge obtained by those methods
Science
The use of objective, systematic observations to test theories
Scientific Method
Burkheim's term for a group's patterns of behavior
Social Facts
The degree to which people feel a part of social groups
Social Intergration
What people do when they are in one another's presence
Social Interaction
The goup memberships that people have because of their location in history and society
Social Location
The intellectueal and academic disiplines designed to understand the social world objectively by means of controlled and repeated observation
Social Sciences
A term used by sociologist to refer to a group of people who share a cultrue and a territory
Society
Understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context
Sociological Perspective
The scientific study of society and human behavior
Sociology
The meanings that people give to their own behavior
Subjective Meanings
A theoretical perspective in which societh is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meanig, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another
Symbolic Interactionism
A general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work; an explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another
Theory
The view that a sociologist's personal values should not influence social research
Value Free
Ideas about what is good or worthwhile in life; attitudes about the way the world ought to be
Values
A German word used by Wever that is perhaps best understood as"to have insight into someone's situation"
Verstehen
Addams was the founder of Hull House - a settlemtn house in the immigrant community of Chicago. She invited sociologist from the nearby University of Chicago to visit. In 1931 she was a winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.
Jane Addams
The reseach by these early sociologist documented a fundamental shift that was occuring in the symbolic meaning of US marriages. They found that marriage was inincreasingly dependant on mutual affection, understanding and compatibility
Ernest Bugess and Harvey Locke
Is often credited with being the founder of sociology because he was the first to suggest that the scientific method be applied to the study of thw social world
Auguste Comte
One of the founders of symbolic interactionism, a major theoretical perspective in sociology
Charles Horton Cooley
pointed out that conflict is likely to develop among people in close relationships because they are connected by a network of responsibilities, power and rewards.
Lewis Coser
Was the first African American to earn a doctorate at Harvard University. For most of his career, he taught sociology at Atlanta University. He was concerned about soical unjustice, wrote about race relations,and was one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
W.E.B Du Bois
Was responsible for gettintg sociolgy recognized a s separate disciplen. He was interested in studying how individual hehavior is shaped by social forces And finding remedies for social ills. He stressed that sociologist should use social facts - patterns of behavior that refluct some underlying condition of society
Emile Durkheim
And Englishwoman who studied British and US social life, she published Society in America decades before either Durkheim or Weber were born. She is known primarily for translating Auguste Comte's ideas into English
Harriet Martineau
Believed that social development grew out of condlict between social classes; under capitalism, this conlict was between the bourgeoisie - those who own the means to produce wealth - and the proletariat - the mass of workers. His work is associated with the conflict pespective.
Karl Marx
Was one of the dounders of symbolic interactionism, a major theoretical persective in sociology
George Herbert Mead
Contributed the terms manifest and latent functions and dysfunctions to the functionalists perspective
Robert Merton
Sugessted that external indluences ( a person's experiences) become part of his or her thinking and motivations and explain social behavior. As the emphasis in sociology shifted from social reform to social theory, Mills urged sociologists to get back to their roots. He saw the emergence of the emergenceof the power elite composed of top leaders of business, politics and the militaray as an imminent threat to freedom
C. Wright Mills
As early as 1933, Ogburn noted that persnality was becoming more important in mate selection; this supported the symbolic interactionsts' argument that there was a fundamental shift in the symbolic meaning of US marriages
William Ogburn
Work dominated sociology in teh 1940s and 1950s. He developed abstract models of how the parts of society harmoniously work together
Talcott Parsons
Was the founder of the sociology depatment at the university of Chicago and the American Journal of Sociology
Albion Small
Another early sociolgist, that believed that societies evolve from barbarian to civilize forms. he was the first to ust the expression "the survival of the fittest" to reflect his belief taht social evolution depended on the survival of the most capable and intelligent and the extinction of the less capable. his views became known as social Darwinism.
Herbert Spencer
Along with Mead and Cooley, Thomas was important in establishing symbolic interactionism as major theoretical perspective in sociology
William I. Thomas
His most important contribution to siciology was his study of the relationship between the emergence of Protestatn belief system and the rise of capitalism. He believed the sociologist shoud not allow their personal values to affect teir social research; objectivity should becom the hallmark of sociology. He argued that sociologists should us Verstehen - those subjective meanings that people give to their behavior.
Max Weber