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38 Cards in this Set

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Define Biology
Is the scientific study of life
define atom
Te smallest unit of amtter that retains the properties of an element.
define molecule
A group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
define macromolecule
A giant molecule in a living organism: a protein, carhydrate, lipid, or nucleic acid.
define organelle
A structure with a specialized function within a cell.
define cell
A basic unit of living matter separated from its environment by a plasma membrane; the fundamental structural unit of life.
define tissue
A cooperative unit of many similar cells that perform a specific function within a multicellular organism.
define organ
A structure consisting of several tissues adapted as a group to perform specific functions.
define organ system
A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions.
define organism
An individual living thing, such as a bacterium, fungus, protist, plant, or animal.
define population
A group of interacting individuals belonging to one species and living in the same geographic area.
define community
An assemblage of all the organisms living together and potentially interacting in a particular area.
define ecosystem
All the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving (abiotic) factors with which they interact; a biological community and its physical environment.
define biosphere
The entire portion of Earth inhabited by life; the sum of all the planet's ecosystems.
define energy flow
The passage of energy through the components of an ecosystem.
define producer
An organism that makes organic food molecules from CO(2), H(2)O,and other inorganic raw materials: a plant, alga, or autotrophic bacterium.
define consumer
An organism that obtains its food by eating plants or by eating animals that have eaten plants.
define decomposer
An orgnaism that derives its energy from organic wastes and dead organisms: aka detritivore.
define prokaryote
An organism with prokarotic cells.
define prokaryotic cell
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-ennclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
define eukaryote
An organism with eukaryotic cells.
define eukaryotic cell
A type of cell that has a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles. All organisms except bacteria and archaea are composed of eukaryotic cells.
define Eukarya
The domain of eukaryotes, organisms made of eukaryotic cells; includes all of the protists, plants, fungi, and animals.
define order
In classification, the taxonomic category above family.
define entropy
A measure of disorder. One form of disorder is heat, which is random molecular motion.
define homeostasis (regulation)
The steady state of body functioning; a state of equilibrium characterized by a dynamic interplay between ouside forces that tend to change an organism's internal environment and the internal control mechanisms that oppose such changes.
define reproduction
The creation of new individuals from existing ones.
define evolution
Genetic change in a population or species over generations; all the changes that transform life on Earth; the heritable changes that have produced Earth's diversity of organisms.
define taxonomy
The branch of biology concerned with identifying, naming, and classifying species.
define domain
A taxonomic category above the kingdom level. The three domains of life are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaya.
define Bacteria
One of two prokaryotic domains of life, the other being Archaea.
define Archaea
One of two prokaryotic domains of life, the other being Bacteria.
define kingdom
In classification, the broad taxomomic category above phylum of division.
define Protista
In the five-kingdom classificaation system, the kingdom that contains the unicellular eukaryotes (and closely related multicellular organisms) called protists.
define Plantae
The kingdom that contains the plants.
define Fungi
The kingdom that contains fungi.
define Animalia
The kingdom that contains animals.
define theory
A widely accepted explanatory idea that is broad in scope and supported by a large body of evidence.