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15 Cards in this Set

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1. The factor that best explains why American Indians originally migrated from Asia to the Western Hemisphere is

a. growing population pressure in the Eastern Hemisphere.
b. the lure of gold and other precious metals.
c. alternating periods of cooling and warming in the earth’s climate.
d. a religious visionary who led them on an exodus to a new land.
1. c. The Ice Age exposed the land bridge of Beringia, making it possible to cross overland between Asia and North America. See pages 6-9.
2. Among the most important factors contributing to the evolution of the culture of early American Indians was the transition from

a. metal to stone tools.
b. democracy to dictatorship.
c. a shaman-led society to a warrior-led society.
d. hunting to agriculture.
2. d. As the climate warmed and the Ice Age ended, the large game population became extinct, and many groups gradually became agriculturalists. See pages 9-10.
3. Ferdinand and Isabella were significant as monarchs because they

a. launched a crusade against the Muslims in the Holy Land.
b. backed the idea that one could reach Asia by sailing west.
c. opposed Viking migration to the Western Hemisphere.
d. gave financial support to the Portuguese for their voyages of exploration.
3. b. They did so in 1492. See page 20.
4. In establishing themselves in the Americas, Europeans were assisted by

a. African slaves whom they armed and led into battle.
b. Muslim traders who supplied them with guns and ammunition.
c. a long drought in the 1500s that wiped out the food supplies of most American Indians.
d. epidemics that ravaged American Indians.
4. d. Diseases introduced by Europeans to the Western Hemisphere killed millions of Native Americans because they lacked immunity to European diseases. See pages 23-24.
5. Cahokia is associated with

a. Columbus’s landfall in the New World.
b. a major African city in the era of contact with the Portuguese.
c. the Hopewell culture that flourished in the interior of North America.
d. the discovery of maize by the Plains Indians.
5. c. See page 10.
6. People who did NOT participate in the enslavement of Africans were

a. the ancient Egyptians.
b. Muslims in North Africa.
c. the Vikings.
d. African tribes like the Ashanti.
6. c. Although they traveled widely, the Vikings did not engage in the African slave trade.
7. Before Columbus arrived in the Americas, the Native American populations

a. established wide, elaborate trading networks.
b. always consigned women to positions of inferiority in the social structure.
c. never developed a knowledge of agriculture.
d. adhered to ideas of land ownership identical to European concepts.
7. a. Archaeological remains prove that North American Indians were bound together in trading networks. See page 23.
8. The Crusades by European Christians against Muslim strongholds in the Middle East had the effect of

a. creating demand for new products in Europe.
b. introducing the Islamic religion in many regions in Europe.
c. creating the Protestant movement.
d. strengthening the hold of Henry VIII in England.
8. a. The new products included, among others, silks and spices.
9. Henry VII of England and Louis XI of France

a. personally led crusades to the Holy Land.
b. were monarchs who took decisive steps to unify their nations.
c. were Protestant monarchs who led movements against the Catholic Church.
d. claimed part of the Americas after Columbus’s discovery.
9. b. See page 20.
10. Like the Crusades, the Reconquista was directed against

a. the Songhai Empire.
b. Muslim rule in an area contested by Europeans.
c. the Vikings.
d. the monarchy of Ferdinand and Isabella.
10. b. In Spain and Portugal. See page 11.
11. Anonymous European fishermen proved important soon after Columbus’s discovery by

a. starting trade with Native Americans in North America.
b. developing the whaling industry off the coast of California.
c. discovering great pearl beds in the Caribbean.
d. None of these
11. a. See page 21.
12. The climate change known as the Little Ice Age
a. led to more peaceful relationships among Native American peoples.
b. raised the demand in Europe for American furs.
c. had a negligible effect on the peoples of North America.
d. probably caused the Vikings to abandon North America.
12. d. It made their colonies economically less sound, and it led to conflict with Native Americans who resided in the far north. See page 21.
a. The climate change brought them into greater contact, provoking conflict and warfare. See page 21.
b. There is no evidence for this. See page 21.
c. It led to greater conflict, alliances, and trade with the Europeans. See page 21.
13. In contemplating the Indian peoples of the Americas, Europeans

a. all agreed that they were cruel and vicious savages.
b. concluded that they probably descended from the ancient Egyptians.
c. had different opinions as to their nature and customs.
d. resolved to exterminate them.
13. c. Some regarded them as noble and free of corruption, while others characterized them as backward savages. See pages 21-23.
14. Protestants, such as Martin Luther and John Calvin,

a. advocated breaking away from the Catholic Church.
b. disagreed about various theological principles.
c. attracted many followers from the middle classes.
d. All of these
14. d. Because all of the above are true, this is the correct choice.
15. American Indian spiritual ideas shared

a. a belief in the divinity of the buffalo.
b. rituals that revolved around the worship of idols.
c. the view that everything in the universe belongs to a single, interconnected whole.
d. beliefs in salvation similar to those of Martin Luther.
15. c. For the basic elements of American spiritual ideas, see pages 21-23.