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43 Cards in this Set

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Child Developement
field of study devoted to understanding coonstancy and change from conception to adolescence and emerging adulthood
theory
orderly, integrated set of statements that descrives, explains and predicts behavior
continuous development
process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with
discontinuous development
new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times
stages
qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development
contexts
unique combinations of personal environmental circumstances that can result in diff. paths of change
Nature-nuture controversy
whether gentic or environmental factors are more important in influencing development
resilience
ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development
tabula rasa
from JOHN LOCKE- meaning "blank slate"
Noble Savages
from ROUSSEAU- meaning naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth
John Locke
-tabula rasa
-favored nurture development
- beleived in continuous develop,
Rousseau
-Noble Savages
-favored nature beliefs
-discontinuous development
maturation
naturally unfolding course of growth
normative approach-
measures of behavior are teaken on large numbers of individuals, and age related averages are computed to represent typical develop.
Psychoanalytic perspective
children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. they way these are resolved determines the persons ability to learn, get along with others, and cope with anxiety
Psychosexual theory
emphasises that how parents manage their childs sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years of life is crucial for healthy personality develop.
Psychosocial theory
ERICKSON emphasized that the ego doesnt mediate between id impulses and superego demands. it is a (+) force in development.
behaviorism
directly observable events-stimuli and responses- are the appropriate focus of study
behavior modification
precedures that combine conditioning and modeling to elminate undesirable bhaviors and increase desirable responses
cognitive-development theory
PIAGETS theory- children actively contruct knowledge as they eplore their world
information processing
human mind might also be viewed as a symbol-minipulating system through which information flows
ethology
the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history
sensitive period
time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge and in which the the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences.
evolutionary development psychology
seeks to understand the adaptive value of specieswide cognitive, emotional and social competencies as they change with age
Sociocultural theory
VYGOTSKYS theory- focuses on how culture is transmitted to the next generation
ecological systems theyory
child developes wtihin a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of surrounding environment
microsystems
activities and interaction patterns in the childs immediate surroundings
mesosystem
encompasses connections between microsystems
exosystem
made up of social settings that dont contain children but that affect their experiances in immediate settigns
macrosystem
cultural values, laws, customs, and resourses
chronosystem
changes in life events can be imposed on the child
dynamic systems perspective
childs mind, bdy and physical and social worlds form an integrated system that guides mastery of new skills. this is a dynmic or constantly in motion system
naturalistic observation
go into the field and observe the behavior of interest
structured observation
investigator sets up a lab situation that evokes behavior of interest so that every participant has an equal opportunity to display a response
clinical interview
a conversational style is used to probe for teh participants point of view
structured interviews
participant is asked the same questions in the same way
psychophysiological methods
measure the relationship between physiological processes and behavior
clinical or case study method
brings together a wide range of ifo on one child, including interviews, observations, test scores, and sometiems psychophysiological measures
ethnography
driceted toward understanding a culture or social group through participant obvervation
correlational dsign
researchers gather info on individuals and make no effort to alter their experiances. then they look at relationships between participants characteristics and their behavior or develeopment
correlation coefficient
number that describes how 2 measures are associated with one another
experimental design
permits inferences about cause and effect because researcheres use an evenhanded procedure to assign people to 2 or more treatment conditions
cross sectional design
groups of people differing in age are stdied at same point in time