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25 Cards in this Set

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Orbitals and max e-
s, p, d, f

2, 6, 10, 14
Aufbau Principle
Orbitals fill in order of increasing energy, from lowest to highest
Pauli Principle
Two e- per orbital, opposite spins
Hund's Rule
degenerate sets of orbitals, equal energy orbitals

2px, 2py,2pz
Lewis Structures
structures showing the valence electrons as bonds or lone pairs
Octet Rule
Atoms achieve 8e- in valence shells by transfering e-, or accepting e-
Cation
+ charge (remove 1 e-)
Anion
- charge (add 1 e-)
Transfer vs Sharing of e-
(what type of bond?)
transfer= ionic

sharing= covalent
Pauling EN scale

What type has low EN?
What type has high EN?
Low= metals

High= nonmetals
EN Scale

When you go from left to right what does EN do? from top to bottom?
L to R- increases

T to B- decreases
Electronegativity frequent elements
H, N, O, P, S
Covalency Rules for O, N, H, and C?
O- 2
N- 3
H- 1
C- 4
Formal Charge
Charge born by each atom in a molecule
Functional groups
Allow you to classify cmps
Site for chemical rxn
Used in naming cmps
Ground State election configuration
The e- configuration of lowest energy for an atom, molecule, or ion.
Electronegativity
measure of an atom's attraction for e-
Bond Length
the distance between nuclei participating in a chemical bond
Nonpolar covalent bond (EN level)
EN less than .5
Polar covalent bond (EN value)
.5 to 1.9
Ionic Bond (EN value)
EN greater than 1.9
VESPR Model

Four regions of e- density, what is the shape and the predicted bond angle?
tetrahedral, 109.5
VSEPR Model

Three regions of e- density, what is the shape and predicted bond angle?
Trigonal planar, 120
VSEPR Model

Two regions of e- density, what is the shape and predicted bond angle?
Linear, 180
Dipole Movement
The vector sum of individual bond dipole moments in a molecule.