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77 Cards in this Set

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Inca
began to expand their influence in the twelfth century and in the early sixteenth century, they exercised control over more territory than any other people had done in South American history. The empire consisted of over one million individuals, spanning a territory stretching from Ecuador to northern Chile.
Maya
The Maya is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems.
Aztec
Ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries
Chaco Canyon
Chaco Canyon was the center of Anasazi civilization, its many large pueblos probably serving as administrative and ceremonial centers for a widespread population.
Woodland Indians
Woodland Indians placed greater emphasis on a more sedentary life by tending plants and cultivating maize, sunflower, beans, and squash.
Mobile Societies (natives)
Natives who are dedicated to migrating and are more hunters and gatherers.
Agriculture (natives)
Natives who are dedicated to using the lands soil to harvest crops
Leif Erikson
A Norse explorer who is regarded as the first European to land in North America nearly 500 years before Christopher Columbus.He established a Norse settlement at Vinland.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Responsible for the beginning of the European worldwide explorations and maritime trade.Henry became aware of the profit possibilities in the Saharan trade routes that terminated there and became fascinated with Africa in general.
Christopher Columbus
initiated the process of Spanish colonization which foreshadowed general European colonization of the "New World".
Ferdinand Magellan
Circumscribed the globe.
The Conquistadors
refer to the Spanish soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas under the control of Spain in the 15th through the 19th centuries following Europe's discovery of the New World
Cortes
Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castille in the early 16th century
Fransisco Pizarro
Spanish conquistador, conqueror of the Inca Empire and founder of Lima, the modern-day capital of Peru.
Catholic Missionaries (natives)
Series of religious and military outposts established by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order between 1769 and 1823 to spread the Christian faith among the local Native Americans.
St. Augustine 1565
St. Augustine is a city in the northeast section of Florida and the county seat of St. Johns County, Florida, United States. Founded in 1565 by Spanish explorer and admiral, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
Ecomiendas
A labor system that was employed by the Spanish crown during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and the Philippines. In the encomienda, the crown granted a person a specified number of natives for whom they were to take responsibility.
Pueblo Revolt
An uprising of many pueblos of the Pueblo people against Spanish colonization of the Americas in the New Spain province of New Mexico.
Mestizo
A person of European and American blood.
John Cabot
The official position of the Canadian and United Kingdom governments is that he landed on the island of Newfoundland. An Italian navigator and explorer.
Richard Hakluyt
An English writer principally remembered for his efforts in promoting and supporting the settlement of North America by the English through his works.
Doctrine of Predestination
A doctrine of Calvinism which deals with the question of the control God exercises over the world.
The English Reformation
The English Reformation was the series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England first broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
John Calvin
Founder of Calvinism. Criticized the church for selling salvation and other corrupt deeds.
Puritan Sepratists
The Separatists were severely critical of the Church of England and wanted to either destroy it or separate from it.
Elizabeth the I
The fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty in England
Coureurs De Bois
An individual who engaged in the fur trade without permission from the French authorities.
New Amsterdam
A 17th-century Dutch colonial settlement that served as the capital of New Netherland. It later became New York City.
West India Company
A chartered company of Dutch merchants. The intended purpose of the charter was to eliminate competition, particularly Spanish or Portuguese, between the various trading posts established by the merchants. The company became instrumental in the Dutch colonization of the Americas.
Sir Walter Raleigh
An English aristocrat, writer, poet, soldier, courtier, spy and explorer who is also largely known for making tobacco popular in England.
Roanoke
An enterprise financed and organized by Sir Walter Raleigh located in North Carolina.
James I
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
Jamestown
First permanent English settlement in the U.S.
John Smith
An English soldier, explorer, and author remembered for his role in establishing Jamestown.
Lord De Lawar
He served as governor of the Jamestown Colony, and the Delaware Bay was named after him.
Tobacco
A plant popular in America, Cuba, and China, usually chewed, smoked or huffed.
Virginia Company
Refers to a pair of English joint stock companies chartered by James I on with the purposes of establishing settlements on the coast of North America.
Head-right System
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists
Powhatans
The Powhatan is the name of a Virginia Indian tribe. It is also the name of a powerful group of tribes which they dominated. It is estimated that there were about 14,000-21,000 of these native Powhatan people in eastern Virginia when the English settled Jamestown in 1607.
Maryland and the Calverts
need to do later
Proprietary Rule
After several expeditions and settlement attempts in the 16th century, the French and English had abandoned the area of present-day South Carolina north of the Edisto River. In 1629 Charles I granted his attorney general
Toleration Act
An act by parliament granting freedom of worship. One series of measures that established the Glorious Revolution in England.
Bacon’s Rebellion
Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city.
Plymouth Plantation
Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth) was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 to 1691. The first settlement was at New Plymouth, a location previously surveyed and named by Captain John Smith. The settlement, which served as the capital of the colony, is today the modern town of Plymouth, Massachusetts.
Mayflower Compact
The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
William Bradford
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
Colonial Currency
Early American currency went through several stages of development in the colonial and post-Revolutionary history of the United States. Because few coins were minted in the thirteen colonies that became the United States in 1776, foreign coins like the Spanish dollar were widely circulated.
John Winthrop
He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony. A Puritan. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first president.
Theocratic Society
need to do
Roger Williams
He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.
Anne Hutchinson
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639
Pequot War
The Pequot War was an armed conflict in 1634-1638 between an alliance of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies with Native American allies against the Pequot tribe.
King Philips War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip.
The Narragansetts
need to be done
English Civil War
Narragansett Bay is a bay and estuary on the north side of Rhode Island Sound. Covering 147 mi2 (380 km2), the Bay forms New England's largest estuary, which functions as an expansive natural harbor, and includes a small archipelago.
Middle Colonies
The Middle Colonies, also known as the Bread Colonies or the Breadbasket Colonies for the region's production of wheat, grain, and oats
Quakers
Members of the Religious Society of Friends, a faith that emerged as a new Christian denomination in England during a period of religious turmoil in the mid-1600's.
William Penn
William Penn received a land grant from King Charles II, and used it to form a colony that would provide a haven for Quakers. His colony, Pennsylvania, allowed religious freedom.
Charter of Liberties
The Charter of Liberties, also called the Coronation Charter, was a written proclamation by Henry I of England, issued upon his accession to the throne in 1100
Black Codes
The Black Codes were laws passed on the state and local level in the United States, but mostly in the south, to limit the basic human rights and civil liberties of African Americans.
Holy Experiment
The "Holy Experiment" was an attempt by the Quakers to establish a community for themselves in Pennsylvania
California 1760’s
However, Western historians may sometimes specifically define the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example, the "short" 18th century may be defined as 1715–1789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution with an emphasis on directly interconnected events.
James Oglethorpe
James Edward Oglethorpe (22 December 1696 – 30 June 1785) was a British general, a philanthropist, and was the founder of the colony of Georgia. As a social reformer in Britain, he hoped to resettle Britain's poor, especially those in debtors' prison, in the New World
Mercantilism
Mercantilism is an economic theory, thought to be a form of economic nationalism, that holds that the prosperity of a nation is dependent upon its supply of capital, and that the global volume of international trade is unchangeable
The Navigation Acts
The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws which restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England (after 1707 Great Britain) and its colonies, which started in 1651.
Sir Edmond Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England.
The Glorious Revolution
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland and II of Ireland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians with an invading army led by the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange) who, as a result, ascended the English throne as William III of England together with his wife Mary II of England.
Cambridge Agreement
The Cambridge Agreement was an agreement made on August 29, 1629, between the shareholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company. The Agreement led directly to the foundation of Boston, Massachusetts.
Church of England (Anglican)
The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communion's thirty-eight independent national and regional churches.
Covenant Theology
Puritan teachings emphasized the biblical covenants: God’s covenants with Adam and with Noah, the covenant of grace between God and man through Christ.
Halfway Covenant
The Half-way Covenant applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who hadn’t achieved grace themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church affairs.
Thomas Hooker
Clergyman, one of the founders of Hartford. Called "the father of American democracy" because he said that people have a right to choose their magistrates.
Joint Stock Company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company’s profits and debts.
Cavaliers (1642-1647)
In the English Civil War (1642-1647), these were the troops loyal to Charles II. Their opponents were the Roundheads, loyal to Parliament and Oliver Cromwell.
John Locke
Locke was a British political theorist who wrote the Fundamental Constitution for the Carolinas colony, but it was never put into effect. The constitution would have set up a feudalistic government headed by an aristocracy which owned most of the land.
Saybrook Platform
It organized town churches into county associations which sent delegates to the annual assembly which governed the colony of Connecticut.
christian shook
A short little white boy