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20 Cards in this Set

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Ablative of Accompaniment
page 17
requires preposition

cum + abl.

"with, accompanied by"
Ablative of Cause
page 110
no preposition

expresses the cause or reason for a quality or verbal action
"because of"
Incolae *īrā* atque *odiō* bellum gerēbant.

The inhabitants were waging war *because of anger* and *hatred.*
Ablative of Comparison
page 280
no preposition

When someone or something is compared to what is viewed as the "absolute standard" of a particular quality, the Ablative of Comparison is used instead of quam and the same case.
Patria mihi *vītā* meā est cārior.

The homeland is dearer to me *than my life.*
Ablative of Degree of Difference
page 280
no preposition

A noun, or more commonly, a neuter singular substantive in the ablative case is used to indicate "the degree" or "amount" by which persons or things being compared differ.
*Multō* altior est fīlius quam pater.

The son is *much* taller than (his) father.

Multīs ante *diēbus* Rōmā discessit.

He departed from Rome many *days* earlier.
Ablative of Description
page 229
no preposition

When a noun in the ablative case modified by an adjective is used to describe another noun.
Sōlus cum multīs hostibus pugnābat. Erat enim magnā *virtūte.*

He alone was fighting with many enemies. For he was of great *courage.*
Ablative of Time When
page 159
no preposition

Used to express "the point in time when" the action of a verb occurs.

"at____" [or] "on____"
Eā *nocte* Pompeius oppidum cēpit.

*On* that *night* Pompey took the town.
Ablative of Manner
page 58
no prepostion

expresses the way or manner in which an action is performed

When a noun functioning as an ablative of manner is not modified by an adjective, the prepostion cum + abl. must be used. When a noun is modified by an adjective, cum + abl. is optional.
Agricolae cum *studiō* labōrābant.

The farmers were working *with zeal.*

Magnā (cum) *cūrā* in viā ambulābō.

I shall walk in the street *with great care.*
Ablative of Means/Instrument
page 17
no preposition

"by means of"

"the instrument by means of" which"
Ablative of Origin
page 229
(a variety of Ablative of Separation)
with or without preposition

ē/ex + abl. = (out) from
dē + abl. = (down) from
reports parentage or ancestry
Aenēās *(ē) deā* nātus est.

Aeneas was born *from a goddess.*
Ablative of Personal Agent
page 57
requires preposition

ā/ab + abl. = by

agent or person by whom the action of the verb is done
Fīlius *ā rēgīnā* vocābātur.

The son was being summoned *by the queen.*
Ablative of Place From Which
page 111
with or without preposition

ā/ab + abl. = (away) from
ē/ex + abl. = (out) from
dē + abl. = (down) from
the prepositions are omitted with names of cities, towns, and small islands, and the nouns domus and rūs.
*Ab Italiā* vēlā dedimus.

We set sail *(away) from Italy.*

Agēbāmur *ex patriā.*

We were being driven *out from the country.*

*Rōmā* discēdam.

I shall depart *from Rome.*

Ablative of Place Where
page 111
requires preposition

expresses idea of location

in + abl. = in, on
sub + abl. =
under; at the foot of; near
prō + abl. =
in front of; on behalf of, for; in return for, instead of

(in used with most frequency)
*In oppidō* erant multī nautae.

*In the town* there were many sailors.
Ablative of Time Within Which
page 159
no prepostion

Used to express "limited period of time within which" the action of a verb occurs.

"within____" [or] "in____"
Paucīs *diēbus* Vergilius magnum carmen perficiet.

*(With)in* a few *days* Vergil will complete a great poem.
Ablative of Price
page 377
no prepostion

Used with verbs of "buying, selling, valuing, and exchanging"

"the price at which" something is bought or sold
Ista fēmina virī vītam *aurō* vendidit.

That contemptible woman sold the life of her husband *for gold.*

*Magnō (pretiō)* ab omnibus virtūs aestimātur.

Excellence is valued *at a great price* by all people.
Ablative of Respect
page 76
no preposition

used to "limit" or "further specify" the meaning of an adjective or verb.

"with/in respect to"

Meā sententiā = in my opinion, with respect to my opinion
Bonus *cōnsiliō* erat Gracchus.

Gracchus was good *in (respect to) judgement.*

*Meā sententiā* imperium habēre dēbēs.

*In my opinion* you ought to have power.
Ablative of Separation
page 110
most often with no preposition

with prepostion:
ā/ab + abl. = (away) from
ē/ex + abl. = (out) from
dē + abl. = (down) from
sine + abl. = without

apart from someone or something
Vir magnus populum *perīculō* līberābit.

The great man will free the people *from danger.*
Absolute Ablative
page 226
no preposition

ablative that is "accompanied by a circumstantial participle and unconnected in syntax" with the rest of the sentence.

(absolūtus = having been freed from)
*Mīlitibus discēdentibus,* omnēs cīvēs ob timōrem fugiēbant.

*(With) the soldiers departing,* all the citizens on account of fear were fleeing.
*When the soldiers were departing...*
*Because the soldiers were departing...*
*Although the soldiers were departing...*
Supine as Ablative of Respect
page 478
no preposition

The ablative supine is an Ablative of Respect.
Hostēs *oppugnātum* patriam nostram *veniunt.*

the enemies *are coming for the purpose of attacking/to attack* our country.

Deōs superat - sī hoc fās est *dictū.*

He surpasses the gods - if this thing is right *in respect to saying/to say.*
Ablative replacing Dative of Agent with passive periphrastic
page 228
no preposition

A noun in the dative case is usually used with a passive periphrastic to express the "agent" or "person by whom" the action of the verb must be done.
Carmen *mihi* scrībendum est.

A poem must be written *by me.*
Locative Case
page 111
Used for the names of cities, towns, and small islands, and the nouns domus and rūs.

Endings sometimes resemble either genitive or ablative endings.

Memorize:
domī = at home
rūrī = in the country
Rōmae = in/at Rome
Athēnīs = in/at Athens
Carthāginī [or] Carthāgine =
in/at Carthage