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54 Cards in this Set

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John Smith
he was one of the founders of Jamestown, and was one of the the seven leaders. After the first year did not end well, he really had everyone get to work. in 1609 he went back to England after being injured by a gunpowder explosion.
Jamestown
It was founded in May 1607. the first year ended in disaster, due to the "starving time" that winter. however, it was the first English settlement in the New World.
Joint Stock Company
a company which has some features of a corporation and some features of a partnership. the company sells fully transferable stock, but all the shareholders have unlimited liability.
indentured servant
is a worker, usually a laborer or tradesman, who is under contract to an employer for a certain amount of time, in exchange for food, clothing, transportation, etc.
Puritan
English-speaking protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries. founded by Marian exiles. "puritan" was used to describe this group of people as extremists.
John Winthrop
received a royal charter for the Massachusetts Bay Company from King Charles the 1st, and led a group of English Puritans to the New World in 1630.
King Philip's War
also called Metacom's rebellion/war. it was an armed conflict btw. Native Americans and the English colonists with their native American allies from 1675-1676. named after the main leader of the Native American side.
William Penn.
Founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American Colony, and the future U.S state of Pennsylvania. early champion of democracy and religious freedom.under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was planned and created.
contrite
feeling regret and sorrow for one's offenses or sins; penitent.
calverts
a family of English Colonists in America, including George, first Baron Baltimore, his son Cecilius, second Baron and recipient of the Maryland charter; another son, Leonard, first governor of Maryland; and Cecilius's son Charles, third Baron and proprietor of Maryland.
Bacon's Rebellion
it was an uprising in 1676 that was led by Nathaniel Bacon, who was a weathy planter. it took place in the Virginia Colony in order to protest Native American raids on the frontier.
Quakers
A christian sect founded by George Fox about 1660; commonly called Quakers.(religious)
mercantism
Mercantism is the belief of more trade, more wealth, and more power. it was popular in the colonial period in America and was supported in western Europe.
Navigation Acts
It was a series of laws that restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England and it's colonies. this started in 1651.
Roger Williams
He was an American Protestant theologian, and the first American proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state. 1636, he began the colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. it provided a refuge for religious minorities.
Anne Hutchinson
She was a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New Netherlands and the unauthorized minister of a dissident church discussion group. She is a key figure in the development of religious freedom in England's American colonies and the history of women in ministry.
John Coodes Rebellion
Known for leading a rebellion that overthrew Maryland's
colonial government in 1689. He took part in four separate uprisings and briefly served as Maryland's governor from 1689-1691.
Incas
Mesoamerican civilization that began as a tribe in the Cuzco area. they were located in the Andres mountains of what is now Chile, Peru, and Ecuador. They became the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.
Mayas
They were noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, along with its art and architecture, and astronomical and mathematical systems.
Aztecs
they were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, and they dominated large parts of mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.the Aztec empire was a tribute empire based in Tenochtitlan.
Chaco canyon
The site of Chaco Canyon is located in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico. It was occupied by people today known as the Anasazi during the mid-7th century. The Anasazi inhabited much of the Four Corners area of the United States, with Chaco Canyon being their first site of urban living
Woodland Indians
Woodland Indians are noted for the cultivation of crops in the fertile valleys of North Georgia. They were native Americans who inhabited the North American continent from before 1000 BC until 1000 AD.
Agriculture(natives)
The most important Native American food crop was Indian corn (maize). Other important American Indian crops included beans, squash, pumpkins, sunflowers, wild rice, potatoes, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, peanuts, avocados, papayas, and chocolate. if they didn't grow it themselves, then they would trade with other native Americans for it.
Leif Erikson
Explorer known as they first European to land in North America, nearly 500 years before Columbus. According to the Sagas of Icelanders, he established a Norse settlement at Vinland.
Prince Henry The Navigator
Henry was born in 1394, in Porto. He was responsible for the beginning of the European worldwide explorations and maritime trade.
Christopher Columbus
He was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer from Genoa, Italy. His voyages across the Atlantic Ocean led to Europeans awareness of the existence of the American Colonies in the western hemisphere.
Ferdinand Magellan
A Portuguese explorer, born in Sabrosa, and he later obtained Spanish nationality in order to serve King Charles I of Spain in searching of a westward route to the "Spice Islands."
the Conquistadors
Refers to the Spanish soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas under the control of Spain from the 15th-19th centuries.After the discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus.
Fransisco Pizarro
Spanish explorer and conqueror who defeated the Inca empire and claimed most of South America for Spain. established the city of Lima, Peru and opened the way for Spanish culture and religion to dominate South America.
Ordinance of Discovery(Aztecs)
In 1573, the "Ordinances of Discovery," promulgated by the Spanish crown, outlawed the brutal treatment of native Americans.It gave strict regulations for the formation of new communities in the Americas.
Catholic Misionaries(natives)
Catholic priests established the Spanish missions to Christianize the native Americans. Once priests formed a mission community, soldiers followed, assigned to presidios (military camps) in order to protect the missions.
St. Augustine 1565
Founded in 1565 by Spanish explorer and admiral, Pedro Menendez de Aviles, and it is the oldest continuously occupied, European- established city and port in the Unites States.
Ecomiendas
a labor system that was employed by the Spanish crown during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and the Philippines. in the Ecomiendas, the crown granted a person a number of natives for whom they were to take responsibility. they would instruct them in the Catholic faith and in the Spanish language.
Pueblo Revolt
It was an uprising by many Pueblos of the Pueblo people against Spanish colonization of the Americas in the New Spain province of New Mexico.
Mestizo
People of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry.
Cortez
Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
John Calvin
he was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. Also an important figure in the development of the system of Christian theology.(Calvinism)
John Cabot
Also known as Giovanni Caboto, he was an Italian navigator and explorer. His 1497 discovery of North America is held to be the first European voyage to the continent since Norse exploration of the Americas in the early 17th century.
Richard Hakluyt
He was an English writer, who is remembered for his efforts in promoting and supporting the settlement of North America by the English.
Doctrine of Predestination
A doctrine of Calvinism that deals with the question of the control God exercises over the world.
The English Reformation
This was the series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England first broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
Puritan Separatists
A significant grouping of English-speaking Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Elizabeth the first
Was Queen regnant of England and Queen regnant of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana, or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty.
Coureurs de Bois
Was an individual who engaged in the fur trade without permission from the French authorities. It is mostly of French descent, operated during the late 17th century and early 18th century in eastern North America, particularly in New France.
New Amsterdam
Was a 17th-century Dutch colonial settlement that served as the capital of New Netherland. It later became New York City.
West India Company
Was a chartered company of Dutch merchants. The intended purpose of the charter was to eliminate competition, particularly Spanish or Portuguese, between the various trading posts established by the merchants.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Was an English aristocrat, writer, poet, soldier, courtier, spy and explorer who is also largely known for making tobacco popular in England. In 1594 Raleigh heard of a "City of Gold" in South America and sailed to find it, publishing an exaggerated account of his experiences in a book that contributed to the legend of "El Dorado".
Roanoke
An independent city in the Southern U.S. state of Virginia and is the tenth-largest city in the Commonwealth. It is located in the Roanoke Valley of the Roanoke Region of Virginia.
James the first
King of England and Ireland as James I from 1603 to 1625. On 24 March 1603, as James I, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died without issue. Then he ruled England, Scotland, and Ireland for 22 years, often using the title King of Great Britain, until his death at the age of 58.
Lord de Lawar
Was the Englishman after whom the bay, the river, and, consequently, an American Indian people and U.S. state, all later called "Delaware", were named.
Tobacco
The practice where tobacco is burned and the vapors either tasted or inhaled. The practice began as early as 5000–3000 BC. Many civilizations burnt incense during religious rituals, which was later adopted for pleasure or as a social tool.
Virginia Company
A pair of English joint stock companies chartered by James I on 10 April 1606 with the purposes of establishing settlements on the coast of North America.
Powhatans
The name of a Virginia Indian tribe. It is also the name of a powerful group of tribes which they dominated. It is estimated that there were about 14,000-21,000 of these native Powhatan people in eastern Virginia when the English settled Jamestown in 1607.
Maryland/Calverts
A county located in the U.S. state of Maryland. It occupies the Calvert Peninsula which is bordered on the east by the Chesapeake Bay and on the west by the Patuxent River. Calvert County is part of the Southern Maryland region.