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47 Cards in this Set

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"The ability, process, or act of remembering or recalling; especially the ability to reproduce what has been learned or explained
reconstructive memory
reconstruction: recall that is hypothesized to work by storing abstract features which are then used to construct the memory during recall
source amnesia
Source amnesia is an explicit memory disorder in which someone can recall certain information, but they do not know where or how they obtained it.
flashbulb memories
A flashbulb memory is a memory laid down in great detail during a highly personally significant event. These memories are to be perceived to have a "photographic" quality.
The more or less unconscious, defensive "filling in" of actual memory gaps by imaginary experiences, often complex, that are recounted in a detailed, plausible way. Seen principally in organic psychotic reactions such as Korsakoff's psychosis.
explicit memory
refers to the conscious recollection of information.

Consciously recalled facts or events (knowing that) which have verbal components. This is the form of memory used, for example, when a person recounts the events of his or her day at work or at school. Also referred to as narrative or declarative memory. See also implicit memory
Present remembered ideas, facts or experiences
Recognizing involves comprehending sensory and informational input to enable identification of people or things.
implicit memory
the information you recall unconsciously in order to do things like tie your shoe, ride a bicycle, or drive a car. It is also known as procedural memory.
is activating particular connections or associations in memory just before carrying out an action or task. These associations are often unconscious.
relearning method
requires you to relearn information or a task that you have learned earlier in life. If you master it more quickly the second time around, you must be remembering something from the first experience.
information-processing models
input, output, accessing, and information retrieval.
converting information to a form taht the brain can process and use
retain it over time
recover it for use
cognitive schemas
mental networks of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning particular topics or aspects of the world.
"three-box model"
storage takes place in three interacting memory systems. Information can pass from the sensory register into STM, and in either directions between STM and LTM.

Sensory register retains incoming info for a second or two

Short term memory- holds limited amount of information for 30 seconds

Long term memory - accounts for longer storage from a few minutes to decades
Parallel distributed processing PDP
a model of memory n which knowledge is a represented as connections among thousands of interacting processing units, distributed in a vast network and all operatng in parallel
sensory register
That portion of the brain which receives input from the five senses. The individual's preconceived concept of what is important will determine how much priority the register will give in passing the information on to the rest of the brain for action.
Short-term memory, sometimes referred to as "primary" or "active" memory, is that part of memory which stores a limited amount of information for a limited amount of time (roughly 30-45 seconds). This can be contrasted to long-term memory, in which a seemingly unlimited amount of information is stored indefinitely. It can be described as the capacity (or capacities) for holding in mind, in an active, highly available state, a small amount of information.
working memory
Memory that manipulates and organizes new information and integrates it with existing knowledge. Working memory allows an individual to pay attention and focus on incoming information, activates related information in long-term memory, and integrates the new information with the existing information. Working memory also transfers newly integrated knowledge to long-term memory for future reference. Working memory is limited in capacity; rehearsal or practice is necessary to prevent loss of information in working memory.
a meaningful unit of information, it may be composed of smaller units

FBI= 1 chunk date 1492= 1 chunk any number 9214=4 chunks
Enduring memories about things, places, and events. Long-term memory circuit The brain circuit, including the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, which enables the brain to lay down and store memories in the cortex
semantic categories
categories in which we organize words or concepts to where they belong

e.g. chair belongs to category furniture
tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states
organizing information in the way words sound or look. People tend to come up with words that are similar in meaning to the right one before they finnaly recall it.
procedural memory
Procedural memory is the long-term memory of skills and procedures, or "how to" knowledge.
declarative memory
Declarative memory is the aspect of memory that stores facts and events. It applies to standard textbook learning and knowledge. It is based on pairing the stimulus and the correct response. For example, the question "What is the capital of Sierra Leone?" and the answer "Freetown". The name declarative comes from the fact that we can explicitly "ask" our brain to make a connection between a pair of simuli. Declarative memory is subject to forgetting and requires repetition to last for years.
semantic memory
One of three classifications of memory; it involves common knowledge of such things as historical figures, public events, and frequently used words. It is also called general memories
episodic memory
Recollection of a particular event characterized by a definite awareness that the event was personally experienced.
serial-position effect
the tendency for recall of the first and last items on a list surpass recall of items in the middle of the list
primacy effect
recall of items at the beggining of the list
Recency effect
recall of items at the end of a list
automatic encoding
encoding that takes place automatically with no effort
effortful encoding
information that was encoded with deiberate effort. The plot of a novel, the procedures of assembling a cabinet etc
maintenance rehearsal
rote repetition of material in order to maintain its availability in memory
elaborative rehearsal
association of new information with already stored knowledge and analysis of the new information to make it memorablle
deep processing
in the encoding of information, the processing of meaning rather than simply the physical of sensory features of a stimulus
strategies and tricks for improving memory, such as the use of a verse or a formula
decay theory
the theory that information in memory eventually diasppears if it is not accessed. It applies more to STM than LTM
retroactive interference
forgetting that occurs when recently learned material interferes with the ability to remember similar material stored previously

Forgets first thing after learning second
proactive interference
forgetting that occurs when previously stored material interferes with the ability to remember similar, more recently learned material

forgets the recently learned and confuses it for the past learned
cue-dependent forgetting
the inability to retrieve information stored in memory because of insufficient cues for recall
state-dependent memory
the tendency to remember something when the remembererr is in the same physical or mental state s during the original learning experience
the loss of memory for important personal information, often painful events. It usually has an organic cause, but in rare cases is psychogenic
in psychoanalytic theory, the involuntary pushing of threatening or upsetting information into the unconcious
childhood amnesia
the inability to remember events and experiences that occureed during the first two or three years of life
living by the stories we tell and pass on. the narratives we compose to simplify and make sense of our lives have a profound influence on our plans, memories, love affairs, hatreds, ambitions, and dreams