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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Organelle
small cellular structures
Cell
structural unit of all living things
What functions do cells have in common?
Divide and make energy
Plasma Membrane
exterenal boundary of cell;regulates flow of material into and out of the cell. site of cell signaling
Lysomes
contains digestive enzymes of many varieties;"suicide sac" of the cell
Mitochondrion
scattered throughout the cell;major site of ATP synthesis
Microvilla
slender extensions of the plasma membrane that increase its surface area
Inclusions
stored glycogen granules, crystals, pigments, and so on
Golgi Apparatus
membranous system consisting of flattened sacs and vesicles;packages proteins for export
Nucleus
control center of the cell;necessary for cell division and cell life
Centrioles
two rod-shaped bodies near the nucleus;direct formation of the mitotic spindle
Nucleolus
dense, darkly staining nuclear body;packaging site for ribosomes
Microfiliments
contractile elements of the cytosleleton
Smooth endoplasmic
membranous system;involved in intracellular transport of proteins and synthesis of membrane lipids
Rough endoplasmic
studded with ribosomes provide an area for storage and transport of proteins:synthesizes phosoholipids and cholesterol
ribosomes
attached to membrane systems or scattered in the cytoplasm;synthesixe proteins
chromatin
threadlike structures in the nucleus;contain genetic material(DNA)
Peroxisome
site of free radical detoxification
Intermediate filaments
stable elements composed of a variety of proteins and resist mechanical forces acting on cells
Microtubules
form the internal structure of the centrioles and help determine cell shape
Structure Function
Different structure of cells do different things
Terminal Cell
doesn't divide
Animal Cell
complex
Integral proteins
cells have their own identification they reconize proteins provide ridigity to give cell shape and attactment Cell to cell recognition.
Primary Active Transport
protein lets energy in and out protein changes its conformation and pumps the bound solute across the membrane
How cells contact other cells
Tight Junction-strongest
skin, water, bags bacteria
Desmosone next zipper.
Gap Junction weakest two channels linking up white blood cells
Extracellular Fluid
watery enviroment
diffusion from high to low until disolved.Concentration graident
Simple diffusion
through the phospholopid bilayer gases, water osmosis water diffusion
Facilitated diffusion
Small lipid insoluble solutes In a hopotonic solution(water0 cells take in water by osmosis blouted and burste (lyse)
Osmolarity
Over consentration of salt
Salt would shrink bloodvessel
Isotonic
blood should be at a correct consentration
Golgi three functions
modify protein
secret protein
breakdown protein
Endomembrane system
Smooth ER
Rough ER
Vacuole Plasma Membrane
Lysosome
Golgi
Cytoskeleton
Ridigity and Support three proteins. Microfilament /protein actin/muscle contration thinest flexable support movement
Intermediate filaments
most stable
Centrioles
pull apart DNA
Only present when the cell is dividing
flagella
tail not charged long thin
Cilia
large numbers movement of mucus across cell surfaces, beat up dust
DNA plus histones surrounded by envelope
Chromatin ( ball shaped condensed)
Chromosome
process of cell division have X stucture ( two chromatin)
Interphase
Cells at rest
Mitotic phase
cell starting to divide
when a cell needs to divide it needs to multiply by 2
Apoptosis
program cell death DNA not copied properly
Phrophase
nucleus desolves
Centrioles form group/spindles form
Chromosomes the DNA form they must line up properly
Metaphase
Chromosomes start to pull apart
Anaphase
chromosomes start to pull apart
Telophase
cell starts to form two cells and reform the nucleus
Cytokinesis
cell into two daugthers