Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Council of Nicea
325 AD
concerned with nature of Jesus Christ as the second person of the trinity.

Arius asserted Christ was not eternally generated from the Father, but created from the non-existent.

Semi-Arians argued that Christ was homoiousios (of simliar substance) with the Father.

Athanasius asserted Christ was eternally begotten of the Father - homoousios (the same essence) as the Father.

The council adopted Athanasian homoousis position, although becuase of the way it was stated in the original creed and because of many bishop's unorthodox positions - the triumph was not clear until Constantinople 381.

Note: Emperor's hand in Nicea dissatisfied many within the church
Council of Constantinople
381 AD

A more explicit definition of the 3rd member of the trinity was added to the Nicean Creed. "and the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father ("and the Son" follows later in the West), who together glorified with the Father and the Son, who spoke through the propehts..."
Council of Ephesus
Dealt with Nestorianism: The Virgin Mary only brought forth a man accompanied by the logos.

Cyril argued that there can be no redemption without a true God-man.

Decision: the logos assumed human nature entirely: 2 natures, the human dependent upon the divine, yet a unity and continuity of the person of Jesus Christ.
The decision not universally accepted.
Council of Chalcedon
451 AD

The Christological Council. Christ is one person, with two natures.

Dealing with Nestorianism and Eutychianism.

Eutychians taught that Christ possessed two natures in one person, each nature performing its own function.

Council asserted
1. The redemption of fallen humans requires a mediator who was human and divine, passible and impassible, moral and immortal, and the Christ permanently assumed human nature.

2. properties of Christ's human and divine natures are attributed to one person.

3. The suffering "I" of the God-man can be regarded as truly, really infinite, yet the divine nature remained impassible.

4. divinity (and not humanity) is the root and basis of Christ's personality. The logos did not unite with a distinct human individual, but with a human nature.
Traditional date ascribed to Luther's nailing of the 95 theses to Wittenburg.

The culmination of a developing movement to reform the Catholic Church from its medieval laxity.

A time of spiritual renewal in which God intervened to return the gospel to the center stage of human history.

5 Solas
Counter Reformation
1534-1563 (1540's)
Catholic response to the Reformation. Many of the abuses of the Catholic church were corrected, and traditional Catholic doctrine was reaffirmed.

Council of Trent was held to combat the spread of Protestantism. It affirmed:
1. The Church and tradition were on par with Scripture
2. Transubstantiation
3. Justification is faith plus works
Heidelberg Catechism
Written by Olevianus and Ursinus.

A beautiful work that has the form of a catechism, but the content of a confession.

Held by the Continental Reformed Church (European - German, Dutch).

Has been said to have a more personal feel than the WCF.
Belgic Confession

Written by Guido de Bres.

One of the three standards of the Dutch Reformed Church.

Draws heavily on the Gallican Confession.
Synod of Dort

Convening of Reformed thinkers to answer the assertions of the Remonstrants.

Other issues within the Dutch Church were dealt with, but primarily answered the five points of Arminianism.

From the Synod came the five points (responses) of Calvinism.
Westminster Assembly

A Gathering of eminent Puritan divines, assembled by the British Parliament with the charge of producing a Confession of Faith to unite the UK ecclesiastically.

Its most enduring work is the WCF and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms which would become the standards for Presbyterian, Congregational and Regular Baptist churches in Scotland, England and America.

The confession and catechisms were borne out of Scotch and English Calvinism and were structured upon the foundation of the Irish Articles of Faith of 1615.

Primarily based in Germany - was a movement against dead orthodoxy in the Lutheran Church.

Emphasis on individual conversion and living orthodoxy that lead to a changed life.

Early leaders Spener and Franke ... carried on by Zinzendorf and the Moravians.

Had a large influence in the development of the modern missionary moment (as well as on John Wesley).

1. Individual experience over theology
2. New birth
3. Spiritual discipline
4. Lay involvement in church
5. Renewal preaching
6. love for all people.
First Great Awakening

Outpouring of the HS through the New England colonies.

Through the reformed preaching of George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards thousands were truly converted.

Edwards countered some of the abuses of the time with such works as "Distinquishing Marks" and "Treatie on the Religious Affections."

Tennet's "Danger of an unconverted ministry" came during this period.
Second Great Awakening

steady religious decline followed the first great awakening.

This second awakening also spread to the frontier.

Characterized by longer duration, more fervor than concern for theology.

Led to:
1. significant church growth
2. improvement of morals and national life
3. checked the growth of Deism
4. growth of missions
5. social reform moments

Left a permanent mark on the American evangelical scene with its revivalistic emphasis and Arminian theology.
Old Side / New Side Controversy
Sparked by the first great awakening.

New side pro revival and staunchly Calvinistic:" Edwards, Tennet, Whitefield.

Old side were anti revival. Many were Arminian, Unitarian or Universalist. Most Famous was Charles Chaucy.
Old School / New School Controversy
Sparked by the second great awakening. There was an effort to create a cooperative plan for reaching the frontier out of which emerged a debate over perceived doctrinal indifference.

Old school were strict subscriptionists and skeptical about revivalistic access (Cane Ridge and the measures of Finny)

New school (at best) lax subscriptionists, often Arminian or rationalists (Stone, Campell)

This controversy split the Presbyterian Church into two denominations in 1837...which eventually reunited... only to split again along North South lines in the Civil War period.
Auburn Affirmation

Issued by a group of Presbyterians meeting in Auburn, New York. Designed to safeguard the unity and liberty of the Presbyterian Church.

The affirmation was intended to display tolerance, but became a marker on the battle field between conservative and liberals in the church.

The Affirmation denied the need of ordained Ministers to commit to the five essentials:

1. Inspiration and inerrancy of Scripture;
2. The virgin birth;
3. Substitutionary atonement;
4. Christ real and historical resurrection and;
5. Jesus working of miracles