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71 Cards in this Set

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Goal of Reproduction
To ensure continued existence through:
Gamete Formation
Fertilization
Gamete
Reproductive cells(spermatozoa or oocytes) that contain half the normal chromosome complement
Gamete Formation
The formation of functional male and female reproductive cells.
-Male Gametes-spermatazoa
-Female Gametes- Oocytes
Mitosis
-Is part of somatic cell division
-Produces 2 diploid daughter cells:
both have identical pairs of chromosomes
Meiosis
-Involved only in the production of gametes: Spermatozoa in males, ova in females
-Human body contain 46 chromosomes and meiosis divides chromosomes in half
- gametes contain 23 chromosomes
-they are haploid
Fertilization
-Fusion of male and female gametes produces: zygote with 46 chromosomes
Gonads
organs that produce gamtes and hormones
Ducts
receive and transport gametes
Accessory Glands
Secrete fluids into ducts
Perineal Structures
collectively known as external genitalia
The Reproductive Tract
Includes all chambers and passageways that connect ducts to the exterior of the body
Pathway of Spermatozoa
1)Testies
2)Epididymis
3)Ductus deferens(vans deferens)
4)Ejaculatory Duct
5)Urethra
Accessory Organs of male
Secrete fluids into ejaculatory duct and urethra:
Seminal Vesicles
Prostate Gland
bulbourethral glands
External Genitalia
Scortum
encloses the testies
External genitalia
Penis
-erectile organ
-contains distal portion of the urethra
Testies
-egg shaped
-5cm long, 3cm wide, 2.5 cm thick
-weighs 10-15g
-Hangs in scrotum
The Scrotum
-Is a fleshy pouch
-Suspended inferiorly to the perineum
-anterior to the anus
-posterior to the base of the penis
The fetus:formation of the testis
-testes form inside the body cavity
-are adjacent to the kidneys
The Fetus:Gubernaculum Testis
-is a bundle of connective tissue fibers
-extends from testis to pockets of the peritoneum
-Locks testis in position(near anterior abdominal wall)as fetus grows
The fetus development of tetis by the 7th month
-Fetus grows rapidly
-Circulating hormones: stimulate contraction of the gubernaculum testis and pulls testies into scrotum
-each testis:
moves through abdominal musculature and are accompanid by pockets of peritoneal cavity
Peritoneum
The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity.
Cryptorchidisum
-One or both testes have failed to descend by birth
-Corrective surgery is needed before puberty
-If both testis are cryptorchid the individual will be sterile
Accessory Stuctures in male
-Accompany testis during descent
-Form body of spermatic cord:
-ductus deferens
-testicular blood vessels,nerves,lymphatic vessels
The Spermatic Cords
-Extend between abdominopelvic cavity and testes(connective Tissues)
-Consist of layers 0f fascia and muscle
-Enclose ductus deferens,blood vessels,nerves,and lymphatic vessels of tetis
Pathway of Spermatic Cords
-Passes through inguinal Canal
-Descends into the scrotum
The Inguinal Canals-Male
-Are passageways through abdominal musculature
-Form during development as testes descend into the scrotum
The female inguinal canals
-Are very small
-Contain ilioinguinal nerves aand round ligaments of uterus(instead of testes)
The Scrotum
-Is divided into two chambers,or SCROTAL CHAMBERS
-Each testis lies in a seperate scrotal chamber
Raphe
-is a raised thickening in the scrotal surface
-Marks partition of 2 scrotal chambers
Tunica Vaginalis
-Is a serous membrane(have fluid inbetween two layers parietal and visceral(against organ))
-Lines scrotal cavity
-Reduces friction between opposing surfaces:
-Parietal(scrotal)
-Visceral(testicular)
The Dartos Muscle
-Is a layer of smooth muscle in dermis of scrotum
-Causes characteristic wrinkleing of scrotal surface
The Cremaster Muscle
-Is a layer of skeletal muscle deep to the dermis
-Tenses scrotum and pulls testes closer to body for temp regulation
Temerature Regulation
-Normal sperm development in the body requires temps 1.1C(2F) lower than body temp.
Tunica Albuginea
-Structure of the testis
-A dense layer of connective tissue fibers
-the fibers are continuos with those surrounding the epididymis
-Deep to the tunica Vaginalis
-They extend into the substance of the testis where there form septa(fibourous partitions),converge near the entrance of the epididymis
-The connective tissues in this region support bllod and lymphatic vessels that supply and drain the tetsis and efferent ductules which transport spermatozoa to epididymis
Septa
-Divide testis into two lobules
-Structure of Testis
Lobules
-Structure of the testis
-Contain about 800 slender and tightly coiled seminiferous tubules
Seminiferous Tubules
-Produce Sperm
-Each is about 80cm long
-Testis contain about 1/2mile of tightly coiled seminiferous tubules
-Each one forms a loop connected to rete testis
Rete Testis
-a network of pasageways
-15-20 large efferent ductules connect the rete testis to the epididymis
Interstitial Cells(cells of Leydig)
-Produce androgens
Androgens
-Dominant male sex hormones
-Produced by the interstitial cells
Testosterone
-the most important androgen
Spermatogenesis
-Process of sperm production
-Begins at the outermost cell layer in seminiferous tubules
-Proceeds toward lumen
Step 1 of Spermatogenesis
-Stem cells(spermatogonia)divide by mitosis: to produce two daughter cells
-One remains as spermatogonium(stem cells), the second differenitiates into primary spermatocyte
Step 2 of Spermatogenesis
-Primary spermatocyte:
-Begin Meiosis
-form secondary spermatocytes
Step 3 of Spermatogenesis
-Secondary spermatocyets:
differentiate into spermatids(immature gametes)
Step 4 of Spermatogenesis
-Spermatids:Differentiate into spermatozoa
Step 5 of Spermatogenesis
-Spermatozoa:Lose contact with wall of seminiferous tubule and enter the fluid in the lumen
Contents in Seminiferous tubules
-Spermatogonia
-Spermatocytes at various stages of meiosis
-Spermatids
-Spermatozoa
-large sustentacular cells(steroli cells)
Sustentacular Cells(Steroli Cells)
-Are attached to tubular capsule
-Extend to lumen between other types of cells
Tube,Ductwork and Pathway for spermatozoa
-Epididymis
-Vans Deferens(Ductus Deferens)
-Ejaculatory ducts
-Prostatic Urethra
-penile urethra
Spermatozoon(Sperm)Structure:Anatomy of a Spematozoon
-Head
-Middle piece
-Tail
Sperm:Head
-Is a flattened ellipse
-Contains nucleus and chromosomes
-Acrosomal Cap at the tip of the head is a membranous compartment
The acrosomal cap contains a enzymes essential to fertilization
Sperm:Neck
-Attaches to the head to the middle piece
-Contains centrioles of original spermatid:microtubules are continous to middle piece and tail
Centriole
-A cylindrical intracellular organelle composed of nine groups of microtubules,three in each group;functions in mitosis and meiosis by organizing microtubules of the spindle apparatus
Sperm:middle piece
-contains mitochondria:in spiral around microtubules
-activity provides ATP to move tail
Sperm:Tail
Is the only flagellum in the human body
Sperm:Flagellum,
-Is a whiplike organelle
-Moves cell from one place to another
-Has complez corkscrew motion
Sperm:Loss of organelles
Mature spermatozoon lacks:
-endoplasic reticulum
-Golgi Apparatus
-lysosomes
-peroxisomes
-inclusions
-other intracellular stuctures
-reduces sperm size and mass
-sperm must absorb nutrients(fructose)from surrounding fluid
Spermatocyte
A cell of the seminferous tubule that is engaged in meiosis
Funtionally Immature Spermatozoa
-Are incapable of locomotion or fertilization
-Are moved by cilia lining efferent ductules into the epididymis
The Epididymis
-Is the start of the male reproductive tract
-Receives spermatozoa from efferent ductules
-Primary storage location for spermatozoa
3 functions of the epididymis
-Monitors and adjusts fluid produced by seminiferous tubules
-Recycles damaged spermatozoa
-Stores and protects spermatozoa: facilitates functional maturation
Spermatozoa Leaving Epididymis
-Are mature but remian immoble
-To become motile and funtional: spermatozoa undergo capacitation
2 steps in capacitation
-Spermatozoa become motile: when mixed with secretions of seminal vesicles
-Spermatozoa become capable of fertilization:when exposed to female reproductive tract
The Ductus Deferens
-Is lined by ciliated epithelium:Peristaltic contractions propel spermatozoa and fluid
-Can store spermatozoa for ssveral months:in state of suspended animation
The Ejaculatory Duct
-Is a short passageway(2cm)
-at junction of ampulla and seminal vesicle duct
-penetrates wall of prostate gland
-empties into urethra
Male urethra
-used by urinary and reproductive system
-extends 18-20cm
-from urinary bladder to tip of penis
Seminal Fluid
-Is a mixture of secretions from many glands
-Each with distinctive biochemical characteristics
Important glands include
Seminal vesicles
prostate gland
bulbourethral gland
4 major funtions of male glands
-Activating spermatozoa
-Providing nutrients spermatozoa need for motility
-Propelling spermatozoa and fluids along reproductive tract:mainly by peristaltic contractions
-Producing buffers:to counteract acidity of urethral and vaginal environments
The Seminal Vesicles
-Are short tubular glands
-Are extremely active secretory glands
-Produce about 60% of semen volume
Compostion of Vesicular Fluid
-High concentration of fructose:easily metabolized by spermatozoa