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195 Cards in this Set

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In 1969 at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), ARPANET?
(Advanced Research Project Agency Network) was born, one of the precursors to today’s Internet.
CERN (Center for European Nuclear Research) invented a
standard programming language called
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
The protocol to move information through the Internet called
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol).
The Internet is a network called
“Client / Server” model.
A computer on a network that stores webpages is called
the server or host,
The computer on the network that requests those web pages is called
a client
Websites have addresses called
Uniform Resource Locators or URLs l
Http refers to
the standard protocol, or the rules of exchanging files.
WWW refers to
the World Wide Web
www.yahoo.com is the
domain name of the website
.com is the
domain code
A website is
a collection of web pages on a server which can be requested by a client and displayed with browser application software
HTML allows the web pages to display
text, images (pictures), videos, and much more
A hyperlink (sometimes called link)
is a clickable navigation element, (typically text, but can be images) in a webpage to another webpage of the same website, or even a completely new website.
People that produce websites are called
web developers, or webmasters.
Content
The most important aspect of any website is always its information, or content. A web site may be technically sound, and visually appealing, but without reliable and original content, it is simply inadequate.
Interactivity ‐
A website that engages the user makes it memorable. A website needs to be interesting enough for an initial visit, but also interesting enough to make a user return. A good website involves the user with a sense of participation.
A browser is
application software that provides an interface which lets a user display and interacts with text, images, and other information located on the World Wide Web.
Bookmarks are also called
“Favorites”
Caching is when
the browser stores copies on a user’s computer of previously viewed web pages that a user has already accessed so it does not have to find it again on the World Wide Web or request it again from the originating server.
Cookies are
text files sent to a browser and then sent back unchanged by the browser to the originating server. Cookies are used for tracking and maintaining specific information about users, such as site preferences and the contents of their electronic shopping carts.
Graphic files (GIF, JPEG)
Web browsers display images with Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG, pronounced JAY‐peg) and Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) file formats.
JavaScript
ome browsers are able to understand a programming language called JavaScript as well as HTML. JavaScripts are client‐ side (user) programs that allow the browser to run small applications, like clocks and calendars that show up on a web page.
Security
Firefox is a stand-alone, or independent browser, so does
not suffer from the same exposure.
Popup Blockers
Popups are separate browser windows that are programmed by website designers to open extra browser windows without user interaction, typically an advertisement.
Connectivity is
when one computer can connect to another or many computers and share information and resources. Without connectivity, the Internet would not exist, nor would any other network.
Internet service provider (ISP)
is a business or organization that provides people a way to access the Internet and World Wide Web.
Broadband Internet access, shortened to "broadband is
a high data‐ transmission rate Internet connection.
DSL and cable modem are
popular consumer broadband technologies, are typically capable of transmitting faster than a dial‐up modem. Different broadband technologies include Cable and Wireless.
Internet hosting service
runs Internet servers, which are then available to serve content such as webpages to the Internet, or clients.
A common kind of hosting is
web hosting.
Websites need to reside somewhere on the World Wide Web so
ISPs “rent” or host space to website owners and offer domain name registration so that
they can be found on the internet, by clients or users.
This is called
Web hosting- services usually offer e‐mail hosting and a variety of other services.
A search engine is
a website that lets a user type in specific keywords or phrases and then returns a list of hits (hyperlinks) that best match the search criteria.
Popular search engines include
Yahoo!, Google, and AltaVista.
“keyword search engines”
only require the user to type in the keyword or phrase.
Many of these same search engines are organized into directories like medicine, or automotive so the user can search only within a particular area.
these are called directory searches.
Metasearch engines look and work like keyword searches
but return the results of many search engines at once and eliminate duplicates hits.
Electronic Commerce is the
distributing, buying, selling, advertising, and marketing of goods or services over the Web.
Large established retail organizations can enhance their scope and reach beyond physical boundaries by opening
virtual storefronts on the Web.
Business‐to‐business (B2B)
is businesses distributing, buying, selling, advertising, and marketing of goods or services over the Web to other businesses.
Business‐to‐consumer (B2C)
is where commercial organizations sell
to consumers. Examples include REI.com, overstock.com, and buy.com.
Consumer‐to‐consumer (C2C)
involves e‐commerce between consumers, usually facilitated some third party. Online auction websites are the most common example, like eBay.com
Information technology (IT) competencies
Modern web‐authoring software provides easy ways to construct a website and post it on the World Wide Web, but e‐commerce requires many more considerations when it comes to website design.
Streamlined business process
E‐commerce demands that a business investigates how it does business on the web. It is imperative to have a complete understanding of the products and services offered, and how they will be delivered in the marketplace.
Agility
E‐commerce offers unique management and information technology agility that allows for website reengineering, and even an entire business facelift far faster than conventional businesses.
Browser hijacking is
when the browser’s settings are modified by Malware.
Malware is
software designed to damage a computer’s system without the owner's knowledge.
A computer virus is
a malicious computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer, typically without the user being aware of it
Worms
A worm is like a virus in that it spreads quickly and is extremely harmful, but does not need to attach itself to an existing program. Worms are self‐replicating (they copy themselves) programs.
Trojan horse
A trojan horse is usually a harmless or interesting
looking program that when executed, unleashes harmful viruses into a users system.
Spyware
is software that installs itself on a user’s system without permission and gleans personal data and information about a user without their knowledge or permission.
Actions of insulin at muscle:
1. Increases protein synthesis

2. Increase glycogen synthesis
Communication
is the most common use of the Internet, and a large part of that is accomplished through electronic mail (e‐mail).
E‐mail is a
“store and forward” system of composing, sending, storing, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems like the Internet.
A user first sends an electronic message to an
e‐mail server on the Internet the same way a letter you mail goes initially to a post office.
The subject, which is
a small one line description of the nature of the email.
attachment
which allows the user to attach a computer file(s) that is delivered with the email.
The e‐mail address, subject, and attachment together comprise the
header
The body of the e‐mail is the actual
message itself
The first and most important aspect is that it is best to understand that all e‐ mail
should be considered public.
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is
the routing of voice conversations, or typically, phone calls over the Internet.
VoIP is a subset of
telephony
An intranet is
a like a private version of the Internet that works the same way as the Internet, but is confined within an organization.
The key aspect of an Intranet is
privacy
A firewall is
specialized hardware and software working together that insures that only authorized personnel within an organization can use the Intranet.
Application programming software to make web pages and websites
didn’t even exist until after Tim Berners‐Lee invented
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) in 1990.
A website is an
assortment of Web pages that can include text, images, videos, and other elements that is hosted on a web server accessible via the Internet.
HTML is the acronym for
Hypertext Markup Language which is the principal programming language resolved and rendered by browsers to display Web pages.
Hypertext refers to
text on a computer that will lead the user to
related information
markup language is
a computer programming language using a set of annotations that give browsers the instructions to display text, images, and other web elements on a web page.
HTML is represented in the form of tags called
elements that are enclosed by angle brackets like “<” and “>”.
Head Elements
typically define a web document’s title, style, and additional information about the document’s author, page description, and keywords to help search engines find the web page.
<style></style> tags define
n overall style for a webpage by describing fonts, colors, and other design elements.
<meta> tags are
additional pieces of information about the web page’s author, web page description, and keywords, to help search engines find the web pages
Link Elements
create elements that can become hyperlinks which allow web page users to navigate to different parts of a web site, or different parts of the World Wide Web.
Image Elements
use special tags to help the browser window display pictures, photographs, and images typically using the GIF or JPEG file formats .
Structural (Block) Elements are designed to
tell a browser how to display and align elements like lists, headings and paragraphs.
Presentational Elements are like <style> head elements but are used in the body of a webpage and allow
the HTML to create presentational effects like italics, bold, and emphasis.
Websites can be broken down into specific
styles and categories depending on their purpose.
Website style simply refers to whether a website’s content is
static or dynamic.
Categories are subsets of styles which include:
Personal, Commercial, Governmental, and Intranet
Sometimes static websites are referred to as
brochure websites or classic websites and are typically written purely with HTML.
Dynamic website styles actually generate a web page directly from
the server depending on the context of the user.
Personal websites are
web pages created by an individual that contain content of a personal nature.
Commercial websites are
a collection of web pages that support a business enterprise for the purpose of e‐commerce or as a brochure type website to incent a user to employ the business.
Governmental websites are
typically a website platform for informational purposes that support their citizens.
Intranets are websites
about a company to support its employees and guarded by firewalls to authenticate its users
Blog
A blog is essentially an online diary, originally called a “web log” and shortened to blog.
Content Website
Content sites typically dispense original content and are often supported by advertising.
Corporate sites
Distribute information about a business to provide background information about their goods and services for public consumption .
Commerce Website
A commerce site is often called an eCommerce site whose sole purpose is to sell goods and services online.
Directory Website
Directory sites are also called search engines that provide users content that is divided into categories for ease of use.
Employment Websites
Employment sites are a popular way for
multiple businesses to post their jobs online to the public.
Gaming Website
Typically gaming sites are games unto themselves and require extensive plug‐ins like Adobe Flash, JavaScript, and ActiveX.
News Website
similar to information sites, but is devoted to providing news and commentary.
Personal Website
Personal websites often take advantage of online blog software and are administered by people or families to include information and content that the individual wishes to share with their friends and family.
School Website
a school website is used by teachers, students, parents, and administrators to post information about their school’s current events, schedules, and homework.
Video Sharing Website
A video sharing website lets user to upload videos for a wider audience to view and often includes ratings and search tools.
Search Engine Website
A search engine site offers general information and research and is intended as an entryway for other websites. Search engine sites offer the user the ability to type in “keywords” about the subject matter they are looking for in a website.
fat client
typically provides rich functionality on the client side independent of a central server.
A thin client is
a client computer or client software like a web browser in client/server network that depends on the server for computer processing which in turn serves up the information to the client.
Businesses typically use fat client programs on client/server networks like
Local Area Networks (LAN) which are restricted in size.
Website online software has to be a dynamic website that generates and processes web pages directly from the server, called
server-side processing
Online advertising is
a form of sponsorship that uses the World Wide Web for delivering business marketing messages to catch the attention of its customers.
Search Engine Results
SERPs are the listing of hits, or web page hyperlinks, returned by a search engine in response to a keyword query.
Personal Website
Personal websites often take advantage of online blog software and are administered by people or families to include information and content that the individual wishes to share with their friends and family.
School Website
a school website is used by teachers, students, parents, and administrators to post information about their school’s current events, schedules, and homework.
Video Sharing Website
A video sharing website lets user to upload videos for a wider audience to view and often includes ratings and search tools.
Search Engine Website
A search engine site offers general information and research and is intended as an entryway for other websites. Search engine sites offer the user the ability to type in “keywords” about the subject matter they are looking for in a website.
fat client
typically provides rich functionality on the client side independent of a central server.
A thin client is
a client computer or client software like a web browser in client/server network that depends on the server for computer processing which in turn serves up the information to the client.
Businesses typically use fat client programs on client/server networks like
Local Area Networks (LAN) which are restricted in size.
Website online software has to be a dynamic website that generates and processes web pages directly from the server, called
server-side processing
Online advertising is
a form of sponsorship that uses the World Wide Web for delivering business marketing messages to catch the attention of its customers.
Search Engine Results
SERPs are the listing of hits, or web page hyperlinks, returned by a search engine in response to a keyword query.
Social Network Advertising
Social network advertising is focused on social network websites like facebook.com and myspace.com.
Banner Advertisements
Banner Ads or web banners are online advertising that entails embedding a JPEG or GIF image advertisement into a web page that attracts traffic to a website by linking to the website of the advertiser.
Cost Per Click (CPC)
Cost per click is when an online advertiser only pays the website owner if a viewer clicks on their advertisement.
Cost Per Thousand Impressions (CPM)
Cost per thousand impressions actually means “cost for every thousand impressions or hits”.
Cost Per Action (CPA)
Cost per action advertising is when the website publisher only charges the advertiser when a specific action is completed by the viewer like completely filling out an online form or purchasing a product.
Computer security is concerned with?
isk management, confidentiality, integrity and the availability of the electronic information that is processed and stored on a computing system.
risk management is
the recognition, consequences, and assessment of risk to a computer’s assets, and developing strategies to manage and protect them.
A hacker is
often someone who attempts to evade or disable a computer’s security measures, and then steals computer resources at their leisure.
An unsecure computer is
connected to the Internet, so they receive emails with malicious attachments, like viruses, worms, and malware.
Connectivity is
when one computer can connect to another or many computers and share information and resources.
"broadband is
a high data-transmission rate Internet connection.
Metasearch engines
look and work like keyword searches, but return the results of many search engines at once and eliminate duplicates hits.
Computer Virus
Computer
viruses are computer files that reproduce by making copies of them
self in a computer’s memory, storage, or on a network, called
metamorphic viruses
Malware is
programs specifically intended to penetrate or damage a computer system without the end user’s knowledge.
Trojan horse
program often seems harmless and possibly interesting until it is executed. When the program is executed, it may release one or many harmful viruses, worms, or any other sort of malicious program
Spyware
is a computer program that is installed covertly on a computer to capture or take control of the computer, without a user's knowledge or consent.
Adware or advertising-supported software is
typically more irritating to a user as it is not usually as malicious.
Spam or junk email
is the abuse of an email system to arbitrarily send typically millions of unsolicited bulk messages.
Denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is
an attempt to make a computer or any of its resources unavailable to its intended users.
Reverse Phishing / Keylogging
keylogging is when a perpetrator logs on to a computer workstation and installs a program that simply records every keystroke made at the workstation’s keyboard.
Antivirus softwares are
computer programs that attempt to identify, prevent and eliminate computer viruses and malware, and typically before they reach a computing system or network.
Operating system vendors like Microsoft and Mac OS are constantly vigilant to protect their user’s operating systems by automatically offering online updates,
or system patches
Internet fraud is
actually a very broad term that refers to any fraudulent activity regarding online activity.
Hackers attempt to locate
large databases online that store credit card information, and then sell the data to other online criminals
One of the newer Internet fraud schemes is called
click fraud
writing programs
inserted into advertising network websites that automatically pass a user to the advertiser whether they had any intention of visiting or not, and collecting the ill gotten per click fee.
Purchase scams are
the most uncomplicated type of Internet fraud.
Purchase scams involve a buyer typically in another country that approaches merchants via spam and asks if they can pay for shipping with a credit card.
Phishing is
a criminal activity using social engineering techniques and attempts to deceptively gain private information, like usernames, PIN numbers, passwords and credit card details, by masquerading as a legitimate business organization typically in a legitimate looking email.
When the user typed their personal information into the webpage, it can copied to a
tracking cookie- unless the cookie is deleted after the user is finished with the webpage, it stays on the client’s computer
Data mining is
when experts extract useful data and information from recorded data, like a cookie.
History files are
a list of stored or cached websites on a user’s computer that are essentially an account of where and what a user’s web browser has visited on the web
Identity theft is
a crime concerning the unlawful practice of assuming another individual's identity, and it is one of the fastest growing crimes in the United States and Canada.
The key piece of information a criminal needs to steal one’s identity is their
social security number
Shoulder surfing is
exactly what it sounds like; a criminal in a public place will simply glance over their victims’ shoulder and watch them dial a phone number, or type in a password on a laptop, or simply listen for a credit card number.
Dumpster Diving
A lot of information is simply thrown away around homes and offices, like copies of checks, bank statements, credit card statements which usually bear your name, address, and sometimes even your phone number
Be “Stingy”
about giving out personal information. Treat all of your
personal information on a “need to know” basis.
“Check”
your financial information on a regular basis and look what
should and shouldn’t be there
“Ask”
periodically for your credit report.
“Maintain”
careful records of your banking and financial records
Most businesses share the same core
business functional behaviors, or departments, whether it is a global enterprise, or a sole proprietorship.
business
is that is an organized entity designed to sell goods and/or services, usually in an endeavor to make a profit.
Accounting
measures and provides financial information about an
organization primarily for its decision makers, investors, and taxing
authorities.
GAAP (generally accepted accounting principles) are
accounting rules for preparing, presenting, and reporting financial statements so the organization and its investors can have a standard set of reports regarding a business’ well being.
Laws like the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 were enacted to
counter fraudulent reporting
Economic terms like “firm-specific human capital” and even “human resources” suggest that
people are a commodity, which is true by some definitions.
Marketing is
the promotion of a business’ products and is a core business functional behavior.
Products are
the actual goods and services a business produces and how they relate to customer’s needs including warranties, guarantees,
Pricing refers to
what a product costs, or at least what a business is willing to exchange for their products.
Promotion is
the advertisement of a business’ products and services, as well as promotion.
Placement is
how a product or service is delivered to a customer. How, where, and to who a product is delivered describes placement.
Research and development (R&D) departments
take a creative and
systematic approach to evolve a business’ original idea and devise
new ones.
systematic approach is
to consider if their ideas are feasible, and if they can be implemented
Many businesses make tangible products
like cars and machinery
that are called “goods”.
intangible products called
“services”, like the advice from an attorney or consulting from a financial advisor
Data and information exchange software and techniques can be categorized as electronic computing tools whereas
collaborative software and techniques can be categorized as management tools
One of the oldest of these business tools is
an Internet discussion board. A discussion board, sometimes called a forum, allows a virtual community of interested users post electronic messages to a web page.
Webinars
typically allow for collaboration and participation between an audience and a presenter
Project Management Software provides
business a collaborative road map for organizing and managing resources to schedule a project from start to finish.
Knowledge Management Systems (KM) are
collaborative systems that organize, create and distribute a business’ collective knowledge.
A common example of a knowledge management system within a business starts with distributing ideas, called
knowledge transfer
One of the newer online collaboration systems is called
online application software
Google offers this free service called Google Docs & Spreadsheets
is widely used by businesses and universities for the purpose of collaboration
reporting
is informational output from an information system to facilitate decision making.
Most reports are periodic in nature, meaning that
they are produced at given intervals, sometimes daily, weekly, monthly, etc.
Reports can also be demand reports, meaning that
they can be produced whenever they are needed. Demand reports are sometimes called ad hoc reports.
Strategic decisions refer to
long-term planning designed to achieve a specific goal
tactical decisions are
specific actions that serve a larger purpose.
Reporting Summarization Levels refers to the
level of detail or level
of summarization in a report
The computerized cash register has software installed called a
transaction processing system (TPS) that collects and stores data (typically in a database) about the hardware store’s daily sales.
Analysis & Predictive Reporting reports refer to
reports that analyze
information and are predictive in nature to make strategic and/or
tactical decisions
Reports can begin to
reveal trends or tendencies in a business
called trend reporting
Actual
hows what actually happened
Previous
Shows what transpired over the previous five day period.
Variance
The difference between the Actuals and Previous
The Forecast headings show
“what was projected to happened” from one time period to another and the variance between the two time periods.
Management Level Reporting refers to
he level of detail or summarization appropriate for a certain levels of employee regardless of report type.
In business, top level executive reporting require
very little detailed reporting, like transaction processing system reports
Management reporting is
summarized from the TPS reports and can sometimes be used for strategic decisions, but generally is used for tactical decisions that require specific actions.
Supervisory reporting Is
highly detailed and generated directly from the transaction processing system, and is rarely used for decision makin