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139 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Greek colonies
farming, S Italy & Sicily
Greeks introduced through colonies
olive trees & grape vines
alphabet
why Greeks colonized
mild climate, central location, rich soil
Geography of Italy
3/4 mountains & foothills, plains w/ silt-enriched soil, mountain streems, swamps, rocky & marshy coast
affect of silt
blocked mouthes of rivers -> mosquito-infested swamps -> malaria epidemics
effect of mountains
traded among selves, cut off by alps (N)
affect of coast
rocky & marshy -> few harbors -> attached to land -> turned to sea to incrase trade
1st people in italy
neolithic villiges & farmes, moved when exausted the land
after neolithic
Indo-europeans - overwhelmed Neolithics
Indo-Europeans
Umbrians - N
Latins - Central plain - Latium
Oscanins
Etruscan location
ruled N italy from plains of Etruria
Etruscan language
not indo-european, Greek alphabet, only able to decifer few words
Etruscan wall paintings
dance & play music -> rich & plesent life
Etruscan Sculpture
men & women feast & converse
victorious soldiers
beautiful deities smlie & gesture
homes of wealthy
Etruscan society
Wealthy overlords
aristocratic priests
slaves of conquered peoples
Etruscan slaves
provide comfort for overlords, sacrifices or fights to the death to appease gods, many revolts
Latins main city
Rome
reality of formation of rome
straw roofes huts on 7 hills join
Etruscan rulars
Tarquins - wealthy etruscs family
Etruscans taught romans
how to build w/ brick & roof w/ tile & religion
Etruscans improved rome
drained marshes & laid city streets, built tempes, mad one of weltiest cities in Italy
Forum
square in center of city, seat of roman gov.
End of etruscan rule
Tarquin the proud - cruelty angerd romans - drove tarqins out
patricians
nobles
republic
community were people elect leaders
plebians
citizens
citizenship in republic
Patricians & plebians, vote, pay taxes, serve in military
Assembly of cenuries
(did) elected oficers of executive branch
Senate
300 patrician men, surved for life, advised consuls, foreign policy, made laws, approved construction contracts
consuls
2 patricains, 1 yr. terms, veto other's decisions
praetors
judges
censors
keepers of tax & pop. records
dictator
temporary in time of crisis, 6 months
Cencinnatus
dictator, plowing, defeated enemy, plowing 16 days later
plebian unrest
resented lack of power, knew patricians couldn't have republic w/out them, refused to fight in army unless changed
tribunes
plebian chosen reps., veto gov. decsions
assembly of tribes
body of plebians who elected tribunes, eventually power to make laws
Religion
renamed greek gods, etruscan influence
soothsayers
priests - bleieved gained knowlege of future flight of birds & animal intestines
basic unit of society
families
households included
unmarried kids, married sons & famiies, slaves
paterfamelias
absolute authority, sell or kill family, supervised edu. of sons, responsibilty for welfare
republic wives
few leagal rights, ran households, sometimes own property
wealthyrepublic women
slaves did work, study Greek literature, arts & fasion
lower-class republic women
houseold tasks, family run shops
republic education
all - rading, wrighting, moral standards; boys - by fathers to be farmers & soldiers; girls - by mothers to run household
republic values
trift, discipline, self-sacrifice, devotion to family
republic education
all - rading, wrighting, moral standards; boys - by fathers to be farmers & soldiers; girls - by mothers to run household
conquest of greeks
help from Pyrrhas -> threw back 2x - terrible loss, pushed back to greece, victory @ great cost = Phyrrhic victory
legions tactics
1st - phalanx, realized were large & slow
rule of conquered people
mild, some - keep gov if help fight enemies, partial rights, some citizens
colonia
perminant military settlements, throughout italy
Carthage
Med. welthiest city, conquered sp coast, Punici
cause of 1st punic war
carthage tretened to get stright of Messina (between italy & sicily)
1st punic war
Carthage - better fleet
rome - bilt larger fleet & grappling hooks - navel battles like land battles
1st punic war
Carthage - better fleet
rome - built larger fleet & grappling hooks - navel battles like land battles
effect of 1st punic war
carthage paid indemity - for damages
Hannibal
father made swear to hate & defeat rome, huge army, through alps - serprise,
Battle of Cannae
romans almost beaten, Scipio - got more troop & attacked carthage - defeated @ zama near carthage
effect of 2nd punic war
carthage gave up lands in sp, most of warships & indemnity
cause of 3rd punic war
carthage no threat - rome forced war
Cato
senetor, "carthage must be destroyed!"
3rd punic war
burned carthage & sold people to slavery
effect of 3rd punic war
Rome control all Med.
"mare nostrum"
our sea
discontent after punic wars
politicians corrupt
seizing of land
from small farmers-dificult to rebuild- agricuture into a buisiness, large estates
latifundin
arge estates, many slaves
affect of slaves
less jobs -> went to cities -> urban poor -> rich/poor gap widened -> danger of revolts
Sparticus
slave revolt, gladiators, defeated legions, greedy, defeated & crucified
Tiberious Gracchus
tribune, limit size of latifunda & distribut land to poor, opposes killed in planned street fight
Marius
consul, professional army w/ alligence to comander not republic
Sulla
rival of marius - exiled him, had self appointed dictator
Ceasar born
Rome, aristocratic family
1st triumvirate
Caesar, Crassus, Pompey
Pompey married
Caesars' only daughter - Julia
1st triumvirate
Caesar, Crassus, Pompey
Caesar's initial gov. position
Counsul
caesar's campiegns
Gallic wars - conquered
fought germanic tribes
invaded britain
mad hero w/ lower classes
1st triumvirate fell apart
crassus killed in battle, julia died
crossing the rubicon
senate orderd to com back & disband army if wanted to run for senate, legend - vision told to cross, now - decision that can't be undone
Ceasar came into full power
captured all italy, defeated pompery in greece
caesars reforms
citizenship in provinces, power to him @atricians expence, central. gov more responsive to territories, public works, made slave-oners hire more workers, founded colonies (land for poor) continued free grain - less people elegable
ceasar's death
Mach 15, 44 BC - Ides of march, popular, senetors stabbed to death - plot to be king - kill w/out trial
2nd triumvirate
divided empire -
Marck Anthony (Greece + E)
Octavion (Italy + W)
Marcus Lepidus (N Africa)
2nd triumvirate end
Oct forced Lep to retire, Athony married cleopatra, Oct convince planned to rule w/ foreign queen, declared war on Anthony
Actium
Naval battle, Oct forces defeated Anthony's + Cleopatra's -> A - killed self, C - askes to retire & have son rule Egypt - refused, killed self
Latins
Tiber R, Rome - good location - middle of sea middle of boot, hill
Romulus & Remus legend
twin sons of Mars & latin princess, abandoned on bank of tiber, raised by wolf, built city on spot, Rom kills Rem - romans like - don't mess w/ us!
serve in legions
all landownig citizend had to
"eagle"
legion flag, discrac to loose, each - name & nickname
"eagle"
legion flag, discrac to loose, each - name & nickname
legion armor
helmet, shield, gladius-short sword, Pilium - javalin
legion armor
helmet, shield, gladius-short sword, Pilium - javalin
carthage gave yup after 1st punic war
Corsica, Sicily, Sardinia - rich land
Gaius Gracchus
tribune, new court b/c of corruption, low cost of grain, killed in planne dstrre fight
effect of gracchi
gov stoped all land reform, showed couldn't solve problens peacefully
Octavian's tiltles
princeps - "1st citizen"
Augustus - "exalted one"
roan coin
denarius
roads
transport fo legions, layered sand, rock, small stpones 7 concrete
Appian way
cut stones, no concrete,work of art
Silk road
rome to china
Augustus did
census, low cost grain, publc buildings, self-gov in provinces
praetorian guard
guar emprer, 9 cohorts
problem of empire
no way to choose new empoers
Julian emporers
Tiberious, Caligula, Claudios, Nero
Tiberious
accused many of treason
Caligula
mentally ill, fav. horse consul, killed by guard
Claudius
conquest of britain
Nero
mentally ill, persecuted christians, seuicide
Flavians
Vespasian, Titus, Domitan
The Good emporers
Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius
Trajan
born in Sp.,conqusts, forum
Hadrian
"'s wall, Pantheon
Marcus Aurelius
Stoicism - Mediations
emporers
Julian, Flavian, Good
family less sig. in empire
father - less power, fewer childern, more divorse & remarry
empire women
own property, testify in court, public roles/power (rich), go to public baths/plays/festivals/gladiator fights
empier slavery
1/3 of pop, conquered people, important to economy, rebelions never worked
gladiators
salves/prisoners of war/criminals, trained by lanista, sometimes to death, schools, criminal free if servived 3-5 yrs, some female
Galen
medical encyclopedia
Pliny the elder
geogrphy, zoology, botany, died from vesuvious ash
romance langs
frenc, spanish, romanian, portugues, italin
Anniad
Virgil, rome's heroinc past, trojan - Annias - founded rome
Tacitus
historian, condemed tyrany
romance langs
frenc, spanish, romanian, portugues, italin
Livy
history - glorified romans
imperial law
same for cit + non", all equal before law, evidence to prove guilty, inocent untill proven guilty, punished fro actons
Palentine hill
center of rome
concerete
cement + sand + water + gravel
central heating
terra cota tubes from central fernace
baths
huge buildings, manny rooms, men & women separte, most free, some - entrance fee, entertainment, like mall
imperial art
realistic, axept idealized emporers
glass
decorative & functional, blowing
Coliseum
awning, seated by gendre & class, filled w/ water to renact naval battles, chamers underground, elevators
Cicus Maximus
violent chariot races
"bread & circuses"
free food & entertainment
empire gap rich/poor
rich - extravagant
most - barly necesities
Panteon
temple o all gods, striscanm dome, chamber - rotunda, openia - let in light