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170 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Bones provide:
shape, support, protection, and the framework of the body.
Bones serve as:
a storage place for mineral salts, calcium, and phosphorus.
Bones play an important role in the formation of?
blood cells
Bones provide areas for the attachment of?
skeletal muscles
Bones help make _____ possible.
movement
Cartilages form:
the major portion of the embryonic skeleton and part of the skeleton in adults.
Ligaments connect:
the articular ends of bones, binding them together and facilitating or limiting motion
Ligaments connect _____ and other structures?
cartilage
Ligaments serve to:
support or attach fascia or muscles.
The skeleton can be divided into two main groups of bones:
the axial (80 bones) and the appendicular skeleton (126 bones).
What are the principle bones of the axial skeleton?
skull, spine, ribs, and sternum
What are the primary bones of the appendicular skeleton?
shoulder girdle, arms,and hands and the pelvic girdle, legs and feet.
Bones are composed of:
50% water and 50% solid matter.
What is the largest bone in the human body?
femur (which is located in the thigh)
What are the smallest bones in the human body?
ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes) which are located in the middle ear.
ab
away from
endo
within
epi
upon, above
meta
beyond
peri
around
poly
many, much
sym, syn
together, with
acr, acr/o
extremity, point
arthr, arthr/o
joint
burs
a pouch
chondr, chondr/o
cartilage
cran/i, carni/o
skull
dors/i
backward
duct
to lead
flex
to bend
kyph
hump
lord
bending
myel
bone marrow
orth/o
straight
oste/o
bone
path
disease
ped, ped/i
foot, child
por
passage
scol/i
curvature
-al, -ic
pertaining to
-algia
pain
-blast
immature cell, germ cell
-cele
hernia, tumor, swelling
-centesis
surgical puncture
-cytes
cells
-ectomy
surgical excision
-ist
one who specializes
-itis
inflammation
-logy
study of
-malacia
softening
-omion
shoulder
-osis
condition of
-pathy
disease
-plasty
surgical repair
-tomy
incision
orthopedics
is the medical/surgical specialty that deals with prevention and/or correction of disorders that involve locomotor structures of the body, especially the skeleton, joints, muscles, fascia, ligaments, tendons, and cartilgate.
A bone forming cell is called?
osteoblast
orthopedist
is a physcian who specializes in orthopedics.
ostearthritis
is inflammation of the bone and joint.
osteocarcinoma
is cancerous tumor of a bone.
osteomyelitis
inflammation of the bone marrow
osteomalacia
softening of the bone(s)
osteotome (OSS tee oh tohm)
instrument used for cutting bone
osteochondritis
inflammation of the bone and cartilage
osteosarcoma
a malignant tumor of the bone arising from connective tissue
What bones are considered part of the "shoulder girdle"?
clavicle-collar bone; scapula-shoulder blade
What bones are considered part of the "pelvic girdle"?
ilium, sacrum, coccyx
What bones are in the arm?
humerus, radius, ulna
What bones are in the leg?
femur, patella, fibula, tibia
What bones are in the hand?
carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
What bones are in the feet?
tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
diaphysis (dye AFF ih sis)
is the shaft of a long bone
epiphyses (eh PIFF ih seez)
are the ends of a developing bone
periosteum (pair ee AH stee um)
is the membrane that forms the covering of bones
sinus
is an air cavity within bones
foramen (for AY men)
is an opening in the bone for blood vessels, ligaments, and nerves
meatus (me AY tus)
is a tubelike passage or canal
trochanter (troh KAN ter)
is a very large process of the femur. A process is a projection or ourgrowth of bone or tissue.
tubercle (TOO ber kl)
is a small, rounded process
tuberosity (too ber OSS ih tee)
is a large, rounded process
condyle (KON dile)
is a rounded process that enters into the formation of a joint, articulation
crest (KREST)
is a ridge on a bone
spine (SPYN)
is a pointed, sharp, slender process
chondrocytes (KON droh sights)
are what cartilage cells are known as
chondral (KON dral)
pertaining to cartilage
chondralgia (kon DRAL jee ah)
pain in or around cartilage
chondrectomy (kon DREK toh mee)
surgical excision of a cartilage
chondromalacia (kon droh mah LAY she ah)
softening of cartilage
chondropathology (kon drah pah THALL oh jee)
is the study of diseases of cartilage
compact bone
is the dense, hard layer of bone tissue
endosteum
a tough, connective tissue membrane lining in the medullary canal and containing the bone marrow
medullary canal
is a narrow space or cavity throughout the length of the diaphysis (shaft of a long bone)
cancellous
is also called spongy bone, this is the reticular tissue making up most of the volume of bone
arthrititis (ar THRY tis)
inflammation of a joint
arthopathy (ar THROP ah thee)
joint disease
arthralgia (ar THRAL jee ah)
pain in a joint
arthrectomy (ar THREK toh mee)
surgical excision of a joint
arthrocentesis (ar throh sen TEE sis)
surgical puncture of a joint
arthrodesis (ar throh DEE sis)
surgical binding of a joint
arthoplasty (AR throh plas tee)
surgical repair of a joint
arthoscope (AR throh skope)
is an instrument used to examine the interior of the knee
a joint is an articulation. It is a place where _________
two or more bones connect. The manner in which bones connect determines the type of movement allowed at the joint.
joints are classified as:
synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, and Diarthrosis
synarthrosis
does not permit movement
amphiarthrosis
permits very slight movement
diarthrosis
allows free movement in a variety of directions ... examples: knee, hip elbow, wrist and foot
flexion
is the process of bending a limb
abduction (ab DUCK shun)
is the process of moving a body part away from the middle
dorsiflexion (dor see FLEK shun)
is the process of bending a body part backward
adduction (ad DUCK shun)
is the process of moving a body part toward the middle
circumduction (sir kum DUCK shun)
is the process of moving a body part in a circular motion
eversion (ee VER shun)
is the process of turning outward
inversion (in VER shun)
is the process of turning inward
extension (eks TEN shun)
is the process of straightening a flexed limb
pronation (proh NAY shun)
is the process of lying prone for face downward; also the process of turning the palm face downward
supination (soo pin NAY shun)
is the process of lying supine or face upward; also the process of turning the palm face upward
protraction (proh TRAK shun)
is the process of moving a body part forward
retraction (ree TRAK shun)
is the process of moving a body part backward
rotation (ro TAY shun)
is the process of moving a body part aroun a central axis
bursa
is a small space between muscles, tendons, and bones that is lined with synovial membrane and contains a fluid, synovia.
bursitis
is inflammation of the bursa
burs
a pouch
lordosis (lor DOH sis)
abnormal anterior curvature of the spine (swayback). The abdomen and buttocks protrude.
scoliosis (skoh lee OH sis)
characterized by an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine and usually appears in adolescence during periods of rapid growth.
kyphosis (kye FOH sis)
the normal thoracic curvature becomes exaggerated - producing a "humpback" appearance
How are fractures classified?
according to their external appearance, the site of the fracture, and the nature of the crack or break in the bone
pott's (POTS)
is a fracture and is one that occurs at the lower end of the fibula and medial malleolus of the tibia with dislocation of foot outward and backward.
How are fractures described?
closed, or simple, open, or compound
closed (KLOZD)
or simple fractures, are completely internal; they do not involve a break in the skin.
compound (KOM pownd)
or open fractures, project through the skin, they are most dangerous because of the possibility of infection or uncontrolled bleeding
comminuted (kom ih NYOOT ed)
fractures shatter the affected area into a multitude of bony fragments
greenstick (GREEN stik)
fracture, only one side of the shaft is broken, and the other is bent; this usually occurs in children whose long bones have yet to fully ossify.
colles' (KOL eez)
fracture, is a break in the distal portion of the radius; it is often the result of reaching out to cushion a fall
acroarthritis (ak roh ar THRY tis)
inflammation of the joints of the hands or feet
acromion (ah KROH mee on)
is the projection of the spine of the scapula that forms the point at the shoulder and articulates with the clavicle.
vertebrae (VER teh bray)
are classified as irregular bones...separate bones
cervical (SER vih kal) curve:
is the first seven vertebrae
thoracic (tho RASS ik) curve:
is the next twelve vertebrae (following the cervical vertebrae)
lumbar (LUM bar) curve:
is the next five vertebrae (following the cervical and thoracic)
sacral (SAY kral) curve:
consists of the sacrum and coccyx.
cranioplasty (KRAY nee of plas tee)
surgical repair of the skull
craniocele (KRAY nee of seel)
protrusion (herniation) of the brain from the skull
craniectomy (kray ne EK toh mee)
surgical excision of a portion of the skull
craniology (kray nee ALL oh jee)
the study of the skull
craniotomy (kray nee OTT oh mee)
incision into the skull
big toe
hallux (HAL lux)
calcaneal (kal KAY nee al)
pertaining to the heel bone
dactylogram (dak TIL oh gram)
fingerprint
genu valgum (JEE noo VAL gum)
knock-knee
flatfoot
also known as pes planus
costal (KOSS tal)
pertaining to a rib
tarsals (TAHR sals)
are the bones of the ankle
The male pelvis is shaped like a ______ forming a narrower outlet than a female.
funnel - It is heavier and stronger and more suited for lifting and running.
The female pelvis is shaped like a ________.
basin - It may be oval to round. It is broader and lighter and is constructed to accomodate the fetus during pregnancy.
Drugs that are used for skeletal system diseases and disorders include:
anti-inflammatory agents, antirheumatic drugs, and analgesics.
Anti-inflammatory agents relieve:
the swelling, tenderness, redness and pain of inflammation. These agents may be classified as steroidal (corticosteroids) and nonsteroidal (NSAIDs).
Analgesics relieve:
pain without causing loss of consciousness. They are classified as narcotic and nonnarcotic.
Abbrevation: calcium
Ca
Abbreviation: degenerative joint disease
DJD
Abbreviation: fracture
Fx
Abbreviation: joint
jt
Abbreviation: long arm cast
LAC
Abbreviation: long leg cast
LLC
Abbreviation: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
NSAIDs
Abbreviation: osteoarthritis
OA
Abbreviation: rheumatiod arthritis
RA
Abbreviation: short arm cast
SAC
traction
Tx
What is osteoporosis?
It it a condition in which there is a reduction in bone mass. Occurs in the aging process of male and female but proceeds faster in females.
osteoporosis
condition of bone passage