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58 Cards in this Set

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Yeast
-are unicellular fungi
-**Saccharomyces cervisiae
-asexual reproduction by budding
Slime molds
feeding stage ----> Plasmodium
Multinucleate(coenocytic),
Chitin
-found in cell walls of fungi
-insoluble polysaccharide
-found in Arthopods:- Crabs
absorptive mode of nutrition
secrete enzymes into substrate absorb digestive materials
Fungi benefit..
-principal decomposer in the ecosystems along with bacteria
-can break down " Ligin"
Ligin
Major component of wood broken down by fungi
Hypha(e)
slender filaments that make up the fungus
Mycelium
cluster of Hypae
The body of most fungi consists of threadlike _____, which form a network called a _____.
hyphae ... mycelium
exoenzyme
A powerful hydrolytic enzyme secreted by a fungus outside its body to digest food.
chitin
A structural polysaccharide of an amino sugar found in many fungi cell walls and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods.
Mycology
study of fungi
Coenocytic Hyphae
Note: Multinucleate
one large cell not divided with multinuclei, no septum
Complete septate hyphae
Cell divided by septa (septums) with a nucleus in each division
Incomplete septate hyphae
cell with many nuclei and incomplete barriors septum and cytoplasmic streaming can be seen (cyclosis)-cytoplasm's moving
Haustorium
specialized hyphae in parasitic fungi and mycorrhizae.specialized hyphae that can penetrate the tissues of host organisms.
Fungi' Domain and Kingdom
Domain Eukarya
Kingdom Fungi
-classified with plants
-Heterotrophic
Fungal Symbionts
1) Lichens
2) Mycorrhizae(Haustoria)" fungus roots"
Lichens
(1) Fungal Symbionts
- Mutualistic relationship
with a fungus(Asmocyte or Basidiomycete), this relationship is called "Living Sponge" (water retention)
-Autrophic "makes the food"
->Cyanobacteria
or Chlorophyta(green algae)
Note:The symbiotic collective formed by the mutualistic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic alga or cyanobacterium.
Body forms of Lichens
1)Crustose
2)Foliose
3)Fruticose
Crustose
(1)form of Lichen
-Embed in the substrate
(Crust-like)
Lichen are "Pioneer Organism"
Lichens are important pioneers on newly cleared rock and soil surfaces.They break down the surface by physically penetrating and chemically attacking it, and they trap windblown soil.
- Breakdown rock/stone into soil (Soil Genesis)
- great environmental indicators
Foliose
(2)Form of Lichens
-" Leaf-like" thallus
-Crinkly edge
-weakly attached to substrate
(easy to pull out)
Fruticose
(3)Form of Lichens
-" Miniature upright shrub"
Ex. **"Pendent" Fruticose
(pendent=hanging down)
Mycorrhizae
(2) Fungal symbionts
-Plant Roots and Fungi
-90% Plants have this association*
-There are two types of Mycorrhizae: Endomycorrhizae, Ectomycorrhizae
Plants dont have many root hairs
Because they have Mycorrhizae
-involve in absorption or minerals
-protect roots during drought
-protect roots from acidic soils
-necessary for germination of orchid seeds
Endomycorrhizae
(1)Type of Mycorrhizae
-more common variety
-crop species:-Corn
-penetrate outer root cells
Ectomycorrhizae
(2)Type of Mycorrhizae
-Trees, Shurbs
-*Surround the roots rather that penetrating
Reproduction of fungi
1)Asexual reproduction
by Mitosis, budding
2)Sexual reproduction
Fungal reproductive cycle
Haploid organisms produce gamate(+/-)that initially undergo plasmogamy. After several mitotic divisions of the Dikaryotic cell(two seperated nuclei) undergo Karyogamy to form a diploid zygote(only 2n in this cycle).Then undergo meiosis to return in haploid state and produce reproductive spores
Plasmogamy
The fusion of the cytoplasm of cells from two individuals; occurs as one stage of syngamy
Karyogamy
The fusion of nuclei of two cells, as part of syngamy.
Asexual spores
(1)type of spore
"Conidia"
-Asexual spores produce directly from the cells of Hyphea
Sporangiophore
Specialized Hyphae that produce asexual spores
Sexual spores
(2) type of spore
-Maybe produced in sac like structure called "Ascus(e)"**
Spore
Unicellular reproductive cell that doesn't have to fuse with other cells to form individuals
"Fungi Are Haploid Organisms"
1)Haplonic life cycle
-dominant stage is Haploid
2)produce +gamete,-gamete
3)Plasmogamy(cytoplasm fuse)
4)Dikaryotic cell(two seperated nuclei)
5)Dikaryotic Organism ungergo Karyogamy(nuclei fuse)
6)Zygote(2n)undergo meiosis to return to haploid state.Then produce sexual spores-->
7) haploid organism
What's the only diploid (2n)stage in fungal reproductive cycle
Zygote
Dikaryotic Hyphae
Hyphae containing two seperate haploid nuclei
(if has only one, call Monokaryotic hyphae)
Phylum Chytridiomycota
"Chytrids"
Genus**Chytrichum
-most primitive of fungi
-transition btw protist and fungi
Phylum Zygomycota(Zygomycete)
" Zygote Fungi"
** Rhizopus stolonifer
(Black Bread Mold)
Zygosporangium
is equivalent to a zygote
(thick-walled structure for survive in very harsh conditions)
Phylum Ascomycota(Ascomycete)
"Sac-fungi"
-32,000+ species
-largest group of sexual reproductive fungi
-Yeast, Truffles, Morels(edible ascocarp), and plant pathogenic types
ascocarp
The fruiting body of a sac fungus (ascomycete)with numerous Asci.
ascus
(plural, asci ) A saclike spore capsule located at the tip of a dikaryotic hypha of a sac fungus(Ascomycete).
Ascospores
-sexual spores that produce in the Ascus
-There are *eight ascospores produce per ascus
"Dutch Elm Disease"
(a europian tree)
Phylum Ascomycota
"Chestnut Blight"
Phylum Ascomycota
"Ergot" on Rye
**Claviceps perpurea
Phylum Ascomycota
"Ergotism" much like " LSD"
or "St.Anthony's Fire"
Phylum Ascomycota
Phylum Basidiomycota(Basidiomycete)
"Club fungi"
Ex. Mushroom, pulfbolt
-Asexual reproduction is not common in Basidiomycota
Basidiocarp(mushroom)
-" fruiting body"
-Elaborate fruiting body of a dikaryotic mycelium of a club fungus(Basidiomycete)
-Have numerous Basidia
Ex. Mushroom
Basidia
"club shaped" spore forming structure
Basidiospore
Sexual spores
Phylum Deuteromycota(Deuteromycete)
"Imperfect Fungi"
-Fungi only reproduce asexually
-not taxonomic
Ex. **Pennicilium notatum
" Penicillia"
Phylum Deuteromycota(Deuteromycete)
Ex. **Penicilium roqueforti
" Blue cheese "
Phylum Deuteromycota(Deuteromycete)
Ex. "Ringworm",
" Atheletes feet"
Phylum Deuteromycota(Deuteromycete)