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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Normal intraocular pressure
10 - 21 mm Hg

over 21 = Glaucoma
Aqueous Humor vs. Viteous Humor
aqueous humor - clear watery fluid (bathes & nourishes lens & cornea)

vitreous humor - gel substance inside eye in front of retina. Become more liquid with aging
ability of eye to bend light rays so that they fall on retina.

when light doesn't focus properly it is called a refractive error
can see near objects clearly but far objects are blurry. (near-sightedness)
can see distant objects clearly but close up objects are blurred. (far-sightedness)
unevenness of the cornea. results in visual distortion
form of hyperopia (far-sightedness) that occurs as a normal sign of aging, usually around 40
a transparent mucous membrane that cover inner surface of the eyelids.
white of your eye (collagen fibers meshed together)
cones vs. rods
Cones- receptive to colors in bright enviroments

Rods- stimulated in dark enviroments
Gerontologic Changes-Visual

Eyebrows & Eyelashes
Loss of pigment in hair

(graying eyebrows and eyelashes)
Gerontologic Changes-Visual

loss of orbital fat, decrease muscle tone, tissue atropy, prolapse of fat into eyelid tissue (ptosis)

drooping of eyelid
Gerontologic Changes-Visual

Tissue damage related to chronic exposure to UV light or to other chronis enviromental exposure. (Small yellowish spot usually on the middle of the conjunctiva)
Gerontologic Changes-Visual

Lipid deposition (scleral color yellowish as opposed to blueish)
Gerontologic Changes-Visual

-Cholesterol Deposits = milky or yellow ring encircling cornea

-Decrease in water content, atrophy of nerve fibers = decrease in corneal sensitivity & reflex

Lipid deposition - blurring of vision
Gerontologic Changes-Visual

Lacrimal Apparatus
decreased tear secretion = dryness

Malpositioning of eyelids = tears overflowin lid margins and not draining thru puncta = tearing, irritated eyes
Gerontologic Changes-Visual

increased rigidity = decrease pupil size

dilator muscle atrophy or weakness = slower recovery time of pupil size after light stimulation

loss of pigment = change of iris color

ciliary body becomes smaller, stiffer - decrease in near vision and accomodation
Gerontologic Changes-Visual

biochemical changes in lens proteins, oxidative damage, chronic exposure of UV light = CATARACTS

rigidity of lens= presbyopia

opacities in the lens = complaints of glare, night vision impaired

Accumulation of yellow substances - yellow color of lens
Gerontologic Changes-Visual

decrease in cones - changes in color perception (especially blue and violet)