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21 Cards in this Set

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the chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth's surface
weathering
the process by which water, ice or gravity moves weathered rock and soil
erosion
the type of weathering in which rocks are physically broken into smaller pieces by freezing, thawing, release of pressure, growth of plants, actions of animals and abrasion
mechanical weathering
the grinding away of rock by other rock particles carried in water, ice or wind
abrasion
process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks, then freezes and expands
ice wedging
the process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
chemical weathering
characteristic of a material that is full of tony, connected air spaces that water can seep through
permeable
the loose, weathered material on Earth's surface in which plants grow
soil
the solid layer of rock beneath the soil
bedrock
dark colored organic material in soil
humus
rich, fertile soil that is made up of about equal parts of clay, sand and silt
loam
a layer of soil that differs in color and texture from th layers above or below
soil horizon
mixture of humus, clay and other minerals that form the crumbly, topmost layer of soil
top soil
the layer of soil beneath the topsoil that contains mostly clay and minerals
subsoil
the loose layer of dead plant leaves and stems on the surface of the soil
litter
soil organism that breaks down the remains of organisms and digest them
decomposer
decomposer
a thick mass of grass roots and soil
sod
the area of the great plains where wind erosion caused soil loss during the 1930's
Dust bowl
the management of soil to prevent its destruction
soil conservation
plowing fields along the curves of a slope to prevent soil loss
contour plowing
soil conservation method in which the dead stalks from the previous year's crop are left in the ground to hold the soil in place
conservation plowing