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175 Cards in this Set

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What is the fertile crescent?
the land between the Mediterranian Sea and the Persian Gulf?
What does Mesopotamia mean?
"land between the rivers"
Where is mesopotmia?
east of the fertile crescent between the Tigris & Euphrates rivers
problems with Tigris Euphrates river flooding
unpredictable
took away villages
Mesopotamia solutions to flooding problems
built dams and escape tunnels
who were the sumerians?
people from Asia who settled in mesopotamia
where was the birthplace of ancient cities
Sumer
city state
consisted of a city and the surrounding area
ziggurat
sumerian temple
what is a ziggurat made of
sun dried brick
ziggurats are shaped like
step pyramids
gov of Mesopotamian city states
military leader then
King who is high priest
monarchy and theocracy
mesopotamian society
men - heads of housholds
women - few rights
mesopotamian system of writing
cunea form
oldest writing in the world
cunea form
cunea form
wedge-shaped markings
sharpened reed into clay tablets
mesopotaian scribes
scribes studied a long time
schools - eddubas
high in society
Gilgamesh
sumerian epic poem
based on king of Uruk
oldest story in the world
sumerian religion
polytheistic
nature gods
citystates w/ patron gods
when argry caused disastors
prevent w/ religios stuff
sumerian tecnology
wheel, potters wheel, sundail, # system, calendar, bronze, plow
Sargon I
1st empire builder in mesopotamia, king of Akkadians
Akkadians
Semites, kingdom - Akkad
Sargon I's empire
united all city states in mesopotamia, spoke akkadian, Sumerian religion, disentigrated after empire
What is Ebla
Kingdom in N Syria
how do we know stuff about Ebla?
Akkadians burned archives but not tablets
What do we know about Ebla
trade w/ Egypt & Mesopotamia
Elected Kings
destroyed by Amoites
Amorites
Semetic People
from Syria
overran Babylon
Hamurabi's empire
controled all of Mesopotamia
Babylon center of trade
trade w/ china & India
how was Hamurabi's code advanced
justice before done by wronged, now matter of comunity, written law, job of gov to preotect people
Hamurabi's code covered
inheritance, theft, home life, intrest
Babylonian social classes
1- kings, priests, nobles
2- artsans, merchants, scribes, farmers
3- slaves
laws varried by class
writing of babylonians
cuneaform - clay tablets
decline of Babylonia
after Hamurabi died
again into city states
Hittiets raided
Babylon capital of new empire
Kemet
"black land" name for Egypt, b/c of soil
name "egypt" comes from
greeks
Nile
flows N
floods yearly
6 cataracts
forms delta
cataract
waterfall
what did egyptaind get from Nile
papyrus, water, fertile soil, ducks,geese, fish,
Egypt protected by
desert & cataracts
people first came to egypt
hunter-gatheres settled -> became farmers -> vilages -> united under king
monarchy
ingdom under unrestricted rule of a king
2 kingdoms of Egypt
Upper & Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
north - nile delta
Upper Egypt
South - Nile Vally
Narmer's other name
Menes
Narmer
king of upper egypt, conquered lower egypt, capital city - memphis,
1st egyptan dynasty
dynasty
line of rulars from one family
civilization of old kingdom
upper & lower egypt sitll separate identities, features of civilization, bureaucracy
bureaucracy of old kingdom
group of gov. officals headed by king's vizier:
trade, taxes, built stuff
when were pyramids built
old kingdom
Step pyramid
King Djoser, 1st large all-stone buildig in the world
stuff in tob w/ king for afterlife
clothing, weapons, ferniture, jewalry
1st dynasty of middle kingdom
capital - Thebes
trades along coast
tried to conquer nubia, syria
built cannal nile to red sea
Hyksos
people from W asia
Hyksos invasion
bronze weapons & chariots vs. copper & stone weapons on foot - conquered & estabilshed new dynasty
founded first dynaty of new kingdom
Ahmose
drove Hyksos out
Ahmose
"pharaoh" means
"great house of the king"
what did Ahmose do
rebuilt egypt, temples, trade
pharaohs after Ahmose
conquest farther east
Thutmose III as pharaoh
conquered syria, pushed up to euphrates, egypt rich, cultural diffusion, empire
empire
bringing many territories under one rule
Amenhotep's wife
Nefertiti
Amenhotep
changed egypt from monotheistic to polytheistic
Amenhotep's god
Aton - sun disk god
Amenhotep's changes
name: Akenaten - "spirit of Aton"
moved capital to city dedicated to Aton
reaction to Amenhotep's changes
common people regected, priests resented loss of power
Akenaten's sucessor
Tutankhamen
after Ramses II died
decline, ruled by Libyans & Kushites
Treaty after battle of Kadesh
permenant pease, fight as allies, unusual
Egyptian social classes
1-royalty, nobles, priests
2-artisans, scribes, merchants, tax colectors
3-mostly farmers
could improve positon
Egyptian Upper class
lived in elaborate homes in cities or estates
Egyptian Middle class
carried out buisiness, comfortable not elegant
Egyptian Lower class
small vilages
rented land from king
worked on building projects
some surved upper class
role of egyptian children
great respect for parents,
son - maintain father's tomb
role of women in old kingdom
property of husbands,
valued producers of children
rights of women in egypt after old kingdom
buy/own/sell property in own name; testify in court; seek divorce; work outside of home
polytheism
worship of many gods
hieroglyphics
pictuere symbols carved on slate
hieratic
egyptian cursive - everyday writing
egyptian writing
few people literate, school for scribes,
egyptian writing
few people literate, school for scribes,
languages on Rosetta Stone
Greek & 2 forms of egyptian
rosetta stone found by
napoleaon's soldiers
rosetta stone found by
napoleaon's soldiers
rosetta stone deciferd by
Jean Francois Champollion
Book of dead
tells how to have a happy afterlife; prayers; say person is a good person; in tombs
science of egyptians
# system, geometry, 365 day calendar, medicine
egyptian medicine
knowlage of anatomy (from embalmbing); wrote directions on scrols; some magic
Subcontinent
large triangular-shaped land mass jutting into ocean
countries in indian subcontinent
India, Pakistan, Bangladesh
natural barriers of Indus R. valley civilization
ocean - E & W
N - Himilayas & Hindu Kush
Rivers in S. asia (India)
Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra
climate of S. asia
warm weather; mountains block cold air
monsoons
seasonal winds
S. asia monsoons
NE - winter, dry
SW - summer, storms
people dependent on:
heavy - destroy villages
light - poor crops
name for Indus R valley civilizaition
the Harappan civilization
main cities of indus R valley civilization
Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro
cities of Indus R valley civilization
citidel, grid pattern, indoor plumbing, brick
crops of Indus R valley civilization
wheat, barley, rice, cotton
Indusrty of Indus R valley civilization
from serplus of food-
cotton cloth; mass-produced clay pots; gold/shell/ivory jewalry; bronze & copper tools; silver vessels
Harappan merchants
soapstone seals, traded w/ mesopotamia
Harappan writing
pictograms, soapstone seals, don't know what they mean, adopted from mesopotamia
Harappan religion
animal & human figures - sugests worshiped nature gods, polytheistic
end of Indus River valley civilization
disapeard - don't know how
Maybe:
climate changes
invaders
name for ancient china
Zhong Guo "the Middle Kingdom"
oldest continuous civilization in world
ancient china
barriers that caused isolation of china
Himmalayas, Kulun Shan, Tian Shan mountains; Gobi desert
rivers in china
Huang He
Chang Jiang/Yangtze
Xi Jian
Huang He flows
N -> E to yellow sea
loess
rich yellow soil
"the Great Sorrow"
Huang He b/c of floods
Yellow River
Huang He - loess - carried down river & deposited - makes soil rich
Chinese creation myths
Pang Yu - hatched grom egg - body made universe
Yu the Great
engeneer - control huang He flooding - Xi dynasty (1st)- no records of
Shang kings
high priests - comunicated w/ gods for people
Shang kings
high priests - comunicated w/ gods for people
oracle bones
call on ancestors, priests wreote on bone, applied heat, pattern=answer
oracle bones
call on ancestors, priests wreote on bone, applied heat, pattern=answer
chinese writing
many charaters, verticle columns, few literate, little conection between written & spoken language
ancient china konwn for
fine bronze work
chinese stuff/artifacts/they made
ivory/jade statues, silk, kaolin pottery
chinese cities
Ex: Anyang
place, temple in middle
then- public building & homes of important people
then- workshops & other homes
Shang dynasty
conquered most of Huang He valley; weakened b/c no strong leaders
Wu
kingof territory; killed king & started new dynaty-Zhou
mandate
authoroty to rule
mandate of heaven
good king - got
bad king - lost -> new daynasty
explained overthrowing of a dynasty
mandate of heaven 1st apeared in
Zhou dynasty
chalenges to mesopotamians
floods, dry, small area, no natural barriers, few natural resources
technology
skills & tools made for special need
mesopotamians solutions to problems
dams, irrigation, bricks for building, traded
city state
city & surrounding area controled politically & economically by city
ziggurat means
"the mountain of god"
ziggurat means
"the mountain of god"
priests role in Sumer
told how to worship, organized projects, taxes
theocracy
gov ruled by a god or priest that is rep. of god
theocracy
gov ruled by a god or priest that is rep. of god
Sumerian gov.
monarchy, theocracy
rule passed from father to son
sumerian religion
polytheism, unhappy afterlife, people @ gods mercy
Gilgamesh
epic of... epic poem, one of earlist works of literature, adventures of king
sumerian inovations
bronze, wagon & potter's wheel, arch, sundial, umbrella
sumerian # system
based on 60
Gilgamesh
epic of... epic poem, one of earlist works of literature, adventures of king
sumerian social classes
top- priests & kings
next- wealthy merchants, scribes
next- farmers, artisans
bottom- slaves
women in sumerian society
... & childern sell to pay debts, own property, trade, lower-level priests, few scribes
empire
group of previously independent territories brought under one rule
semite
spoke language similer to hebrew or arabic
patriarchal
father/eldest male - leader
stele
upright stone slab w/ inscription
Hamurabi's code on
stele, picture showed came from gods
Shamesh
sumerian sun god
created double crown
Narmer
Atun
sun god in human form
Ra
sun god
son of Ra
pharaoh
Isis
nile, giver of life, wife of osiris
Osiris
resurection & rebirth, fought brother Seth, 1st mummy, judge of the underworld
Horus
Hawk, sun, defeats Seth, son of Isis & Osiris, in batttle sth plucks out "eye of horus"
built on sides of nile
tombs - W
living - E
Giza pyramids
kufu (cheops) & 2 sons
perfect square
Ka
eternal spirit of pharaoh
judging souls
osiris weigh heart against fether of Ma'at(truth & harmony), heavy w/ sin- eaten by devouerer of souls
Annubis
Jackel, god of embalmbing
Amose
egyptian prince - drove hiksus out, new dynasty, rebuilt egypt
Hatshepsut's relations
father- Thutmose I
husband/brother- Thutmose II
stepson/nefew- Thutmose III
Aton - different
said universal god, not as animal or human
El-Amarna period
capital - amarna
Amenhotep
ankh
symbol for eternal life
sphinx
body of lion, human head
"god of technology"
Osiris
sybols of pharaoh
crook & flail
Isis pictures w/
cow + sundisk or throne headdress
canopic jars
hold: stomach, liver, lungs, intestines; protected by 4 sons of horus
chinese built with
wood, earthan walls of cities
feudalism
lords granted use of land by king in return for loyalty