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84 Cards in this Set

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What is the rock cycle?
It allows us to view many of the interrelationships among different parts of the Earth system.
What is magma?
Molten material that forms inside Earth.
What is crystallization?
When magma cools and solidifies.
How is igneous rock formed?
When crystallization occurs either beneath the surface or following a volcanic eruptions, at the surface.
What is weathering?
It's when igneous rocks are exposed at the surface and the influences of the atmosphere slowly disintegrate and decompose the rock.
What is sediment?
Particles and dissolved substances.
What is lithification?
It is when sediment turns into rock.
What is sedimentary rock?
When sediment is compacted by the weight of overlying layers.
What is metamorphic rock?
When sedimentary rock reacts to the changing environment.
Processes driven by heat from Earth's interior are responsible for creating what type of rocks?
Igneous and metamorphic
Weathering and erosion, external processes powered by energy from the Sun, produce what type of rocks?
Sedimentary
What is magma?
Molten material
What are extrusive or volcanic rocks?
Igneous rocks that form when molten rock solidifies at the surface.
What is intrusive or plutonic rock?
Igneous rock that forms at depth.
Slow cooling of igneous rocks makes what kind of crystals?
large
Rapid cooling of igneous rocks makes what kind of crystals?
small intergrown crystals
What is texture?
The overall appearance of an igneous rock, bases on the size and arrangement of its interlocking crystals.
How is fine-grained texture formed?
When igneous rocks form rapidly at the surface or as small masses within the upper crust.
Too small to be seen w/ unaided eye.
How is coarse-grained texture formed?
When large asses of magma solidifies far below the surface.
Large enough to been see w/ unaided eye.
What is porphyritic texture?
When large crystals are embedded in a matrix of smaller crystals.
Bow is glassy texture formed?
Rapid cooling when ions don't have sufficient time to unite in an orderly crystalline structure.
What are dark silicates?
THey are rich in iron and/or magnesium and have low levels of silica.
What are light silicates?
THey have greater amounts of potassium, sodium, and calcium and are richer in silica.
What percent of igneous rock do feldspars make up?
40%
What is granitic composition?
When quartz and feldspar are teh dominant minerals.
What are felsic rocks?
THat is another name for granitic rocks.
What is granite?
A coarse-grained igneous rock that forms where large masses of magma slowly solidify at depth.
What is the characteristics of basaltic composition?
Substantial dark silicate minerals and calcium-rich plagioclase feldspar (no quartz).
What's another name for basaltic rocks?
mafic
What are andesitic or intermediate compostion rocks made of?
It has a composition between granitic and basaltic rocks.
What is ultramafic?
Peridotite rock that is composed almost entirely of dark silicate minerals.
What are the names of igneous rocks from lightest to darkest?
Granitic (felsic), andesitic (intermediate), basaltic (mafic), untramafic.
What is crystal settling?
When earlier-formed minerals are heavier and sink toward the bottom of the magma chamber.
What is magmatic differentiation?
The formation from one or more secondary magmas from a single parent magma.
What are the two kinds of weathering?
Mechanical and chemical.
What is mechanical weathering?
The physical breaking up of rocks.
What are three important physical processes in nature that break up rocks?
frost wedging, expansion resulting from unloading, and biological activity.
What is frost wedging?
When after many freeze-thaw cycles, the rock is broken into pieces.
What is unloading?
When large masses of igneous rocks are exposed by erosion, entire slabs begin to break loose.
What are some examples of biological activity?
Activity of organisms, including plants, burrowing animals, and humans.
What is chemical weathering?
It alters the internal structure of minerals by removing and/or adding elements.
What does the chemical weathering of granite produce?
Clay minerals along with potassium ions and silica, which enters into solution.
What is ultramafic?
Peridotite rock that is composed almost entirely of dark silicate minerals.
What are the names of igneous rocks from lightest to darkest?
Granitic (felsic), andesitic (intermediate), basaltic (mafic), untramafic.
What is crystal settling?
When earlier-formed minerals are heavier and sink toward the bottom of the magma chamber.
What is magmatic differentiation?
The formation from one or more secondary magmas from a single parent magma.
What are the two kinds of weathering?
Mechanical and chemical.
What is mechanical weathering?
The physical breaking up of rocks.
What are three important physical processes in nature that break up rocks?
frost wedging, expansion resulting from unloading, and biological activity.
What is frost wedging?
When after many freeze-thaw cycles, the rock is broken into pieces.
What is unloading?
When large masses of igneous rocks are exposed by erosion, entire slabs begin to break loose.
What are some examples of biological activity?
Activity of organisms, including plants, burrowing animals, and humans.
What is chemical weathering?
It alters the internal structure of minerals by removing and/or adding elements.
What does the chemical weathering of granite produce?
Clay minerals along with potassium ions and silica, which enters into solution.
What is detrital sedimentary rock?
Sedimentary rocks made of detritus which is particles of igneous rock.
What are chemical sedimentary rocks?
When dissolved substances are precipitated back as solids called chemical sediment.
What are gravel sized rounded rock called?
Conglomerate
What is breccia?
Gravel-sized angular pieces of rock.
What is sandstone?
sand-sized grains of rock.
What is shale?
most common sedimentary rock made of very fine-grained sediment.
What is siltstone?
Not as fine as shale but still very fine.
How are detrital rocks formed?
From the solid products of weathering.
HOw is chemical sediments formed?
Material that is carried in solution to lakes and seas.
What is limestone?
The most abundant chemical sedimentary rock.
What are evaporites?
When the arms of the sea are gone and the deposits are left behind.
How do you classify detrital rocks?
Particle size.
How do you classify chemical rocks?
Mineral composition.
What is lithification?
The process by which sediments are transformed into solid sedimentary rocks.
What is compaction?
When sediments accumulate through time, the weight of overlying material compresses the deeper sediments.
What is cementation?
When the cementing material are carried in solution by water percolating through the pore spaces between particles.
What are strata/beds?
The single most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks.
What are fossils?
The traces or remains of prehistoric life.
Every metamorphic rock has a parent rock. What is a parent rock?
The rock from which it was formed.
Describe metamorphism.
When preexisting rock is subjected to temperatures and pressures unlike those n which it was formed causing it to change form.
What is contact or thermal metamorphism?
when rock is intruded by a magma body.
What is regional metamorphism?
When great quantities of rock are subjected to directed pressures and high temperatures associated with large-scale deformation.
What are the agents of metamorphism?
Heat, pressure, and chemically active fluids.
What is contact or thermal metamorphism?
When rocks experience a rise in temp. when they are intruded by magma rising from below.
Pressure and heat increase with depth. What is it called when the forces are applied equally in all directions?
confining pressure.
What is foliated texture?
It results whenever the minerals of a rock are brought into parallel alignment.
What is nonfoliated texture?
Metamorphic rock that does not exhibit foliation.
What is foliation?
The reorientation of the mineral grains into layered or banded appearance.
What does the term schist describe?
The texture of rocks regardless of composition.
What is gneiss (nice)?
A term applied to banded metamorphic rocks that contain mostly elongated and granular minerals.