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55 Cards in this Set

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Who was the President who really got the Westward movement going, and who were the people that were movin? (types of ppl)
Jackson.....young, 30 yrs or younger and energetic
What were the Bad parts about pioneer living? What were things specific to men and women?
poorly fed, ill-clad,bad housing, disease,depression,premature death,loneliness,ill-informed,supersticious,very individualistic women had mental breakdowns from being cut off from ppl,men wrestled nastily for fun
Who was a Western writer, and who were 2 painters? What was their writing styles?
Ralph Waldo Emerson was the writer,James Fenimore Cooper, Herman Melville painted. it was weird!
What were some good traits about pioneer ppl?
they would not be scared to ask their friendly neighbors for help w/ barn work or fencing etc. and they went to gov. for internal improvements.
When the pioneers traveled over the prairies, what happened to the prairies. specifically, in KT??
they became barren and run down. KT left the "bluegrass" suitable for livestock and brought more pioneers
What were some animals that were hunted,where were they, who hunted them, and what were the effects of the hunting?
fur trappers hunted beaver around the Rockie area,(manufacturers came in spring made tents, and traded goods w/ the furs),buffalo robes were popular, CA otter pelts were too. these animals became very scarce
What were some things that the pioneers did to show their love of American beauty?
wrote literature,did paintings,conservation movement by Catlin(he saw Indians kill many buffalo and wanted a nat'l park, which led to creation of YellowStone.)
How fast was US growing in 1860, how many states were there, what country number were they (pop)?
doubled every 25 yrs,33 states, fourth place behind Russia France Austria
The rapidly growing urban cities experianced what problems? What did Boston and NY create to help?
smelly slums,bad street lights, not enough police,bad water,bad sewage,rats,lots of waste and hogs running around
Boston:made sewer system
NY:ditched wells for piped water system
What was the biggest cause of growth around 1860 and why was it happening? What two countries were most involved? what helped quicken the trip overseas? What was still bad about it?
What was a minor cause?
IMMIGRATION especially from German and Ireland. Europe was too crowded and US was the "Land of Freedom" and opportunity, lots of land,immigrants already there sent letters to relatives across seas telling how great it was,THe Steamship! unsanitary,disease,death
MINOR:high birthrate
Describe the Irish:why they came,where they went, what they brought,where they worked...
potato phamine in the "Black Forties" they went to big cities like boston and ny, since they didn't have enough money to buy land and farming tools out west. forced to live in bad conditions,Americans looked down on them since they were Catholic,thought they were illiterate, many ppl didn't want to hire them. they worked on railroads and canals
What hardships did the Irish face? How did they improve their situation and what did they become involved in?
How did US candidates get their votes?
forced to live in bad conditions,Americans looked down on them since they were Catholic,thought they were illiterate, many ppl didn't want to hire them. they worked on railroads and canals,they improved status by buying land,they got into politics and controlled many crucial buildings(Tammany Hall),became police officers
US candidates poked at the bRit(irish enemy)to get their votes, which was very important to get!
Why did the German 48ers come over,how were they different from the Irish?
they came because:uprooted farmers(failed crops etc.),some liberal political refugees who wanted the democracy of the US,their revolutions failed.
Diff:had more $$,went to midwest and bought farms(WI),voters were more spread out
What parts of the German culture did they bring,what did they support and why did ppl eye them w/ suspision?
they brought:conestoga wagon,KT rifle, Xmas tree,Kindergarten,support of schools,arts,music,and abolitionism,
eyed: they made "colonies" to keep them seperate to preserve culture.and they drank heavily bier (beer)
Why were most ppl worried about the foreigners who were coming in the 1830s and 40s?
might outbreed,outvote,TAKE JOBS
The German and Irish Catholics were hated by many, what did they create,why did the public hate the Catholics,what was the Order of the Star Spangled Banner, and waht happened to the Catholic buildings? (give specific one in Philly)
They made a catholic school system to keep kids "non-Protestant",hated cuz:thought it'd destroy Protestantism and make "pauper idols",The Order....:"nativist"group who wanted strict rules on immigration and naturalization laws and right to deport aliens, Catholic churches/schools were attacked In Philly:"nativist" group burnt Cath. churches
What good things did immigrants do for America?
gave minds and hands, and helped economy grow.
What country first created the factory industry, and how did it get to US, why was the growth of it slow, and when did it pick up?
British inventors made machines for mass production of textiles, then they moved to W. europe and finally to US, but ppl didn't want to work there, cuz they'd rather farm,it picked up when the immigrants got there.
What problem did British goods give to the factories in US and what did they have laws forbidding the export of, what did Yankees do to fake their products being British?
it was hard to keep up w/ British goods, which were cheaper and better made.they were forbidden to sell machines to US, and ppl who could make them couldn't move out of Britain. Yankees stamped the British symbol on their goods.
Who was Sam Slater and what did he do for America? What did Eli Whitney do?
Slater:"father of the factory system",brought textile machine instructions to US and built one in RI.(it spins cotton thread)
Whitney:made cotton gin which picked out cotton seeds and saved time,$$,and changed US and world history and cotton way more profitable
What were the effects on the south and north with the creation of the cottin gin by Whitney?
s:got more land,slaves,grew way more cotton, and north could make machine parts.
where were the factories first built? where were the most mills?
NEW ENGLAND!!
How did the Embargo help US industries, hurt shipping, and the cancellation of it hurt the industry? What did congress pass to help the hurt?
help:ppl had to buy goods from US industries,shippers couldn't ship to Britain,Cancel:Brit sent tons of cheappp goods over and made lots of ads. congress passed the Tarrif of 1816
Along with the textile and factory systems grew, what other industries sprang up and what other thin(besides gin)did Whitney invent?
firearm manufacturing, whitney made interchangable parts and it was modern basis for mass production and assembly line
What did whitney's 2 inventions contribute to the coming Civil War?
made the chance of it bigger, since more slaves,and the Union became stronger since they could use the mass production of firearms
What did Elias Howe invent to boost the textile industry and the ready made clothing industry? Who worked in these factories? In the 1850s, the number of what went way up? (starts w/ p)
he invented the sewing machine, women worked,and the patents went way up
What technical advances came in the 1850s to boom the business status? Who were the Boston Associates? What did NY's "free incorporation" mean?
limited liablity let investory risk only his stock, B.associates were an early investment co.,"free inc":men could make corporations w/ out getting a charter for it first.
What did Morse invent that made communication way better?
the telegraph!!
What was first illegal in factories? What court case helped this?
labor unions Commonwealth vs. Hunt:said labor unions were ok, if they were peaceful.
How did the adult factory workers improve in the 20s and 30s of the Jacksonian democracy? What did Van Buren pass?
their ideas matched jackson's:10 hr day,higher wages, better conditions,pulbic education,end to debtor prison Van burne made the 10 hr day for fed. employess a good sign!
What were the laborers greatast weapon in the factories? did they lose or win more?
STRIKES!! but they lost more, cuz bosses could replace them w/ immigrants
What were the pros of women who worked in the textile mills? cons?
economic independence to them,they could buy manufactured products.cons:6 days/wk,low$$,dark to dark,etc..
What were some specific things about the Lowell Mills in Mass?
were watched all times by matrons,couldn't drink,had to go to church,forbiddon to make unions,had the Lowell Offering:letters and writings to the girls working there.
What did most women do instead of working in the mills? what types of girls were they?
nursed,taught,household service most were:immigrants,poor whites,and single
describe Cult of Domesticity and the "women's sphere" what was "domestic feminism?"what did this create?
married women glorified skills of homemaking and got great moral power in homes
sphere:love determined the decisions,families got closer,more loving,and families got smaller dom. fem:women chose to have less kids even under the cult of dom....childcentered families,parents "shaped" kids' morals
What was the picture of a modern family?
small,affectionate,child-centered,special place for strength of women(womens sphere)
What type of ppl did the Republic raise?
not just law abiding citizens, but individualistic,prosperous ones who made their own choices with good morals
Having to do w/ farming, what was the trans-allegheny region known as, and what did they make? where were these goods shipped?
"bread basket" corn used many ways:feed hogs,liquor,cincinatti was Porkopolis.. down the Mississippi to the S (cotton kingdom)
John Deere invented the what, and what did Cyrus McCormick make and how did it effect america?
Deere: stell plow
McCormick:mower reaper:made once substinant farmers into eager capitolists,soon they harvested tons and wanted to sell to other places, but were landlocked...
What was one improvement in travel of 18800s that started w/ a T and who was agsnt them? What was the first big one that started the T boom?
turnpikes! new england (pop drain) and states righters who didn't want fed $$ to go to internal improvements
Lancaster turnpike
What road went from MY to IL and was interupted w/ its building by war of 1812?
Cumberland/Nat'l road
What boat advancement did Fulton create, and what did it allow ppl to do? How did it change travel in boats?
What dangers did they present, and how was expansion of pop effected?
Steam engine!!they could go agnst the wind current tide made it faster,cheaper and easier ppl wanted to race them, making the engions explode, and west and south opened up and cities grew along the banks
Describe the Erie Canal:where the $$ for it came from,who was the gov who made it,where'd it go to,how did it effect the industry,farming,immigration pop. and land along it? what cities sprung up around it?
what bad thing in NY made more ppl go NW?
$$:came from NY's money
Clinton made it
Buffalo on Lake Erie to Hudson Rvr to NY harbor.
Industry boomed,farming profited more,tons more immigrants to NW,value of land went up,Rochester, syracuse,cleveland,detroit,chicago
potato price went way down so new yorkers moved there
What was the most important transporation thing created? and which ppl didn't like it?
the railroad.canal ppl didn't especially in NY cuz of the erie canal they forbid trains to carry freight at first.
What were the early dangers of the train and what were the fixes?
set fire to things nearby, bad brakes,different distances between tracks (gauge) made ppl switch trains alot. fixes:gauge standardized,brakes got better, safety devices developed,and Pullman "sleeping palace"came in 1859
What did Cyrus Field do that was amazing w/ the telegraph?
connected one from Ireland to Newfoundland, connecting the two continents.
Why did merchant marines suffer in the 40s and 50s and what invention of boat made it better?How? What were it's cons, and what country outdid em?
war 1812,embargo,Panics Yankee Naval Yards like McKay's in Boston, made clipper ships:sleeker,faster,long,andthin, but:lack of space British iron tramp steamers "teakettles"were slower but steadier,rommier,more reliable, and more profitable
Two horse driven ideas: stagecoaches and the Pony Express, were out west. describe the pony express.what invention quickly put them outta business?
horseriders carried mail form St. Joseph,Miss to Sacramento while stopping at stations along the way Morse's telegram put them out!
In the three decades previous to the Civil War,what made the commerce and communication change and the use of what former big transport slowed down?
canals and railroads changed it and the use of Mississippi slowed down due to trains,lake boats, and canals
Who handled tons of western products(city,state),was huge part of their economy, and wanted to connect w/ them(region)?
New England especially Buffalo NY cuz of Erie Canal
What type of economy did each section have?
west:grain and livestock East: machines and textiles South:cotton
What did south expect the west would have to do if south ceded, why, and what didn't they realize?
they thought they'd have to cede since they shared economy, but didn't know how close they were w/ the east
Who was the new chief justice after John Marshall and who did he side w/ when owners of Boston's Charles River Bridge tried to sue the newcomers for owning Warren Bridge, saying it violated their contract?
Roger B. Taney was the new guy, and he sided w/ the newcomers,because:rights of the community outweighed any corporate rights and limited liability ruled Unlike what Marshall would've done.
How did households change later on after the "transportation revolution?"
they became not so selfsufficient but more into working at mills or selling crops, and traditional womens work became less important, and home was a refuge from long days at work
What two types of ppl became more seperated after the transportation revolution? What type of ppl were there more of? (name one)
the rich and poor! millionaires like John Jacob Astor: fur co. and real estate speculator.