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122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central Nervous system
brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
nerves and receptors
afferent
transmit impulses from receptors to CNS
efferent
transmit impulses from peripheral division to motor division
autonomic nervous system
involuntary processes innervated by nervous system. broken down into 2 parts: parasymphatetic and sympathetic
sympathetic nervous system
involuntary process that acts under emergency situations
parasympathetic
nonemergency situations
somatic nervous system
voluntary muscle. impulses from CNS to motor muscles
2 nervous cell types
1. neurons-only cells in body to carry an action potential
2. neuroglia (glia, glial tissue)
5 neuroglia cells
astrocyte
microglial
ependydmal
schwann
oligodendrocyte
astrocyte
anchors by wrapping around capillaries and nerve cells. Determines also what can and cannot leave the cappilary. Maintains interstitial fluid chemical balances
microglial cell
important in immune function of nervous system. Phagocytizes bacteria, virus, toxins, etc. Kin to a WBC
ependydimal cell
transports CSF
oligodendrocyte
produces myelin sheith of CNS
Schwann neurolemmocyte
insulates axons with myelin sheith of the PNS. Contains satelite cells
ganglion
group of nerve cell bodies within the PNS
nucleus
group of nerve cell bodies within the CNS
Neuron characteristicas
has cell body (soma, pericaron) w/ nucleaus, nissil bodies w/ R ER, dendrites that relay incoming pusles, axon hillock, terminal branches
nodes of ranvier
area on the axon between shwann cells
axosomatic synapse
axon of one neuron attaches to a body of another
axodendritic synapse
axon of one nerson attaches to dentdrites
axoaxonic
axon of one neuron attaches to an axon of another
multipolar, bipolar, and unipolar
structural classification
many process, 2 processes or one process extending from soma.
functional classification of neuron
direction of impulse. afferent, efferent, association
neurolemma
cell membrane of schwann cell
chemically gated ion channel
intergral proteins sit in the phosolipid bilayer. need a chemical to bind to receptor site
voltage gated ion channel
inside of cell is negative, outside is positive, when depolarized channel opens
sodium potassium pump
K+ and Na+ try to sneak out through cell membrane. if it gets out it is pumped back in
depolarization
`Na+ floods in, K+ floods out
repolarization
K+ pumped out of cell
threshold
amount of stimulus needed to creat an action potential
absolute refractory period
period where neuron is resting to such an extent that you can zap it all you want and nothings gonna happen. all Na+ gates are open
relative refractory period
associates with repolarization. not all Na+ gates are open so if the stimulus is great enough, depolarization can occur
saltatory conduction
action potential jumps from one node to the next skipping the myelinated part. faster transmission then unmyelinated
neurotransmitters
catecholamines
indolamines
catecholamines
norepinethrine, dopamine, epinephrine
indolamines
seratonin, histamine
diencephalon
thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus
hypothalamus
80% of dienchephalon. afferent impulses for all sense and parts of the body converge in the thalamus and synapse with at least one of its nuclei. It plays a key role in sensation, motor activities. cortical arousal, learning and memeory.
hypothalamus
caps the brain stem. main visceral control center of the body. overall body homeostasis. autonomic, emotional responce, body temp, apetit, water balance and thirst, sleep cycle, endocrine system
epithalamuc
pineal gland- sleep awake cycle and aspects
brain stem
3 structures- pons, medulla, midbrain
centers in brain stem
pyramid- wiring to muscles involved in motor skills. dicussation of pyramids- crossing over of wiring
cerebellum
- helps maintain posture and balance, fine control of skeletal muscles
lymbic system
has an important rol in how we respond emotionally to stimuli
eeg
graphic representation of electrical activity of the brain
protective coverings of the brain
hair, scalp, periosteum, skull, dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
2 layers of dura mater
periostel and menigeal
subdural space
space between dura mater and arachnoid
subarachnoid space
space between arachnoid and pia mater. this is where CSF circulates
Arachnoid villi
soak up excess CFS and transports it to venus system
superioe sagital sinus
cavity below dura mater
septum pellucidum
separates 2 ventricles
coroid plexus
produced by capillaries, produces CSF. CSF produced in lateral ventricales, it merges then to 3rd ventricle then in cerebral aquaduct into 4th ventricle
apature
pening in 4th ventricle into arachnoid space and central canal of spinal cord
functions of CSF
cushion brain, provide nutrients to maintain good environment
removes waste products
conus medillaris
between l1 and l2. spinal cord ends because vertebral column grows too fast
choroid plexus
produces CSF. Pia mater has a fold, around fold is a capillary then a layer of ependymal cells. the ependymal cells say what gets ito the capillaries and what doesnt. it filter the CSF
cause equina
strip of pia mater that holds to the sacrum. tail of nerves for lumbar and sacral area
gray matter of spinal cord
gray matter , looks like butterfly. separeated into horns, posterior, anterior, and lateral. anterior median fissure, posterior median sulcus
white matter of spinal cord
separted into column. veniculus. posterior, anterior and lateral
tracts
bundles of axons
blood/brain barrier
only allos certain things get through. lipid soluable substances. tight junctions and astrocytes
lymbic system
importance in emotion
gray commisure
gray matter of spinal cord with central canal. associated with 4th ventrical
simple reflex arc
sensory to association to motor. same as afferent to intergrate to efferent
unipolar to nulti to multi
spinal cord
central cavity surrounded by a gray amtter core, external to which is white matter composed of myelinated fiber tracts
brain
similair to spinal cord but with additional areas of gray amtter. cerebelum has gray matter in nuclei, cerebrum has nuclei and additional gray amtter in the cortex
ventricles of the brain
arise from the expansion of the lumen of the neural tube. they are c shapes lateral ventricles. 3rd found in diencephalon 4th in the hindbrain dorsal to the pons
cebral hemisphere
83% of brain mass. has ridges gyri, and grooves, sulci. contain deep grooves fissures. and separated by longitudinal fissure. 3 basic regions cortex, white matter and basal nuclei
5 lobes divided by deep sulci
frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital and insula
central sulcus
separated the brain into frontal and parietal lobes. surrounded by the precentral and postcentral gyri
cortex
superficial gray amtter accounting for 40% of the mass of the brain. enables sensation, comm, memory, understanding and movements
functional areas
motor areaa- volun. movement
sensory area- conscious awareness of sensation. association area- integrate diverse information
broca's area
located anterior to the inferior region of premotor area. present in only 1 hemisphere usually left. a motor speech area that directs the muscles of the tounge.. it is active as you prepare to speak
wernicke's area
involved in sounding out unfamilair words
infundibulum
stalk of the hypothalamus, connects to the pituitary gland. main visceral control of the body
lymbic system
has an important rol in how we respond emotionally to stimuli
eeg
graphic representation of electrical activity of the brain
protective coverings of the brain
hair, scalp, periosteum, skull, dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
2 layers of dura mater
periostel and menigeal
subdural space
space between dura mater and arachnoid
subarachnoid space
space between arachnoid and pia mater. this is where CSF circulates
Arachnoid villi
soak up excess CFS and transports it to venus system
superioe sagital sinus
cavity below dura mater
septum pellucidum
separates 2 ventricles
coroid plexus
produced by capillaries, produces CSF. CSF produced in lateral ventricales, it merges then to 3rd ventricle then in cerebral aquaduct into 4th ventricle
apature
pening in 4th ventricle into arachnoid space and central canal of spinal cord
functions of CSF
cushion brain, provide nutrients to maintain good environment
removes waste products
conus medillaris
between l1 and l2. spinal cord ends because vertebral column grows too fast
choroid plexus
produces CSF. Pia mater has a fold, around fold is a capillary then a layer of ependymal cells. the ependymal cells say what gets ito the capillaries and what doesnt. it filter the CSF
cause equina
strip of pia mater that holds to the sacrum. tail of nerves for lumbar and sacral area
lymbic system
has an important rol in how we respond emotionally to stimuli
eeg
graphic representation of electrical activity of the brain
protective coverings of the brain
hair, scalp, periosteum, skull, dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
2 layers of dura mater
periostel and menigeal
subdural space
space between dura mater and arachnoid
subarachnoid space
space between arachnoid and pia mater. this is where CSF circulates
Arachnoid villi
soak up excess CFS and transports it to venus system
superioe sagital sinus
cavity below dura mater
septum pellucidum
separates 2 ventricles
coroid plexus
produced by capillaries, produces CSF. CSF produced in lateral ventricales, it merges then to 3rd ventricle then in cerebral aquaduct into 4th ventricle
apature
pening in 4th ventricle into arachnoid space and central canal of spinal cord
functions of CSF
cushion brain, provide nutrients to maintain good environment
removes waste products
conus medillaris
between l1 and l2. spinal cord ends because vertebral column grows too fast
choroid plexus
produces CSF. Pia mater has a fold, around fold is a capillary then a layer of ependymal cells. the ependymal cells say what gets ito the capillaries and what doesnt. it filter the CSF
cause equina
strip of pia mater that holds to the sacrum. tail of nerves for lumbar and sacral area
lymbic system
has an important rol in how we respond emotionally to stimuli
eeg
graphic representation of electrical activity of the brain
protective coverings of the brain
hair, scalp, periosteum, skull, dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
2 layers of dura mater
periostel and menigeal
subdural space
space between dura mater and arachnoid
subarachnoid space
space between arachnoid and pia mater. this is where CSF circulates
Arachnoid villi
soak up excess CFS and transports it to venus system
superioe sagital sinus
cavity below dura mater
septum pellucidum
separates 2 ventricles
coroid plexus
produced by capillaries, produces CSF. CSF produced in lateral ventricales, it merges then to 3rd ventricle then in cerebral aquaduct into 4th ventricle
apature
pening in 4th ventricle into arachnoid space and central canal of spinal cord
functions of CSF
cushion brain, provide nutrients to maintain good environment
removes waste products
conus medillaris
between l1 and l2. spinal cord ends because vertebral column grows too fast
choroid plexus
produces CSF. Pia mater has a fold, around fold is a capillary then a layer of ependymal cells. the ependymal cells say what gets ito the capillaries and what doesnt. it filter the CSF
cause equina
strip of pia mater that holds to the sacrum. tail of nerves for lumbar and sacral area