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109 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the basic unit of society?
families
What is Prehistory?
before writing
anthropolgists
study hominids
archeologists
study artifacts
paleoclimatologists
study climate
artifact
object made by humans
fossil
evidence of organic life preserved in rock
radiocarbon dating
measure age of organic matter by calculating the amount of C14
how did scientists measure the age of a fossil before radiocarbon dating
what level of rock found in
how did scientists measure the age of a fossil before radiocarbon dating
what level of rock found in
Who discovered Lucy?
Dr. Donald c. Johanson
australopithicus
"southern ape"
australopithicus means
"southern ape"
characteristics of australopithicus
pre-human
3.5-4 ft. tall
small brain
large teeth
Where was Lucy found?
Hadar, Ethiopia
What type was Lucy?
Australopithicus
Which Species developed limited speech?
Homo Habilis
Which Species developed crude stone tools?
Home habils
Which Species gathered and scavenged for food?
Homo habilis
Which Species developed fire?
Homo Erectus
Which Species developed language?
homo erectus
Which Species invented spear points?
neanderthal
Which Species had caves with drainage ditches as shelters?
neanderthal
Which Species first started to care for weaker members of the comunity?
neanderthal
Which Species first had pottery?
Cro-Magnen
Which Species did cave paintings?
Cro-Magnens
Who were the first people to migrate?
Homo erectus
uses of fire
cooking
warmth
protection
comunication
light
Which Species had dvision of laber by gender?
Homo erectus
Did neanderthals beleive in Life after death? How do we know?
buried with spear points and stuff
Which Species were most like modern humans?
Cro-Magnens
what were the uses of art?
religous
passing on knowlage
What tools did the Cro-Magnens have?
Knife, chizel, ax, fishooks, needles
The develope of agriculture is called
The Neolithic revilution
revolution
a change when things afterward never are the same
causes of Neolithic revolution
climate change
population growth
hunting more dificult
how was domestication useful?
food
wool - textiles
protection - dogs
What do you need to trade?
an exess of something
Where were civilization started?
along rivers-
Huang He
Indus
Nile
Tigris-Euphrates
stages of irriation
1.carried water
2.ditches
3.cannals, resovoirs, dams
How was irrigation helpful?
could grow more crops
what made long-distance trade possible?
Wheel, sail + rudder
Charateristics of civilization
social classes
cities center of trade
complex institutions
a system of writing
advanced technology
Why cities made government
to organize big projects
Sumarian writing
cunea forms
cunea means
wedge shape
Bronze is made with
copper + tin
Why was bronze valuble?
sharper and harder
hard to find
Why did people develope creation myths
morality
Good triuphs over evil
what is a zigerat
sumarian temple
hominids
humans & human-like cretures
What is Lucy?
40% of a skeleton
the most complete skeleton of a pre human on 2 legs
Homo means
"man" in Latin
3 million years ago the climate changed
How did it change and how did hominida adapt?
cooler & drier
more powerful teeth and larger brains
Homo habilis means
"person with ability"
Homo erectus means
"person who walks upright"
Homo sapien means
"person who thinks"
what were the ice ages?
4 long periods where average temps. were below freezing
how were land bridges created?
oceans dropped
culture
knowlage, language, eating, dress, religion, art, & music of a people
Traits of Australopithicus
3.5-4 ft.tall
small brain
large teeth
aposable thumbs
achievments of autralopithicus
walked upright
carry stuff
traits of Homo habilis
larger brains
more powerful teeth
long arms
achievments of Homo habilis
food gathering and scavenging
crude stone tools
limited speech
lived in trees
traits of Homo erectus
life expectancy - 20 yrs.
lived in bands of 40-60
achievemnts of Homo erectus
fire
migration
language
lived in caves
traits of neanderthals
5.5 ft. tall
stocky
muscular necks and sholders
thick bones
achievements of neanderthals
planned burials
care for weaker members
free-standing shelters
traits of cro-magnons
looked like modern humans
DNA almost identical
achievements of cro-magnons
lots of tools
cave paintings
canoes
pottery
responses of early humans to ice ages
miration, better shelter, fire, death, clothing, tools + waepons, language
Neanderthal's main achievement
free-standing shelters
largest Neolithic vilage
Catal Huyuk
Achievements of neolithic farmers
irrigation, domestication, plow, sickle, wheel, calendars, fertilizer
what did trade lead to?
jobs involving trade
written records
system of measurements
cultural diffusion
What did domesticaton lead to?
concept of ownership
economic changes in town life
agriculture
new technology
irrigation
domestication
diferent crafts
bartering
social changed of town life
simple government
concept of ownership
economic changes of cities
specialized workers
trade
social changes of cities
complicated government
complicated religion
system of writing
Types of paleolithic art
cave paintings
clay figures
problems of neolithic vilagers
raiders
natural disasters
disease
features of Catal Huyuk houses
flat roofs
shared walls
mud bricks
walked on walls
no windows
murals on inside of walls
crops in the Middle east
wheat & barley
crop in SE Asia
rice
crop in the Americas
corn
crops in Africa
bananas & yams
crop in S Amaerica
potatoes
how did farming make life easier
steady food supply
could stay longer in one place
where was Jericho
in the modern West Bank
what was Jericho?
one of the earliest neolithic vilages
where was Catal Huyuk?
in modern Turkey
how did neolithic farmers fertilize feilds
ashes, fish, manure
achievements of neolithic farmers
wheel, loom, plow, claendars,
civilization
complex society
root of civilization
Latin civitas meaning "city"
economy
the ways in which people use their envirnment to meet their needs
artisans
workers skilled in a craft
a mixture of metsals ia called a(n)
alloy
cultural diffusion
the exchange of goods & ideas
who was in the ruling class?
Government laeders, military officials, priests
Layout of city
center - importantr buildings
next - residents of ruling class
next - merchants houses
next - shops and homes of artisans
outskirts - farmers, sailors, & fishermen homes
how did writing start
preists records
myths
traditional stories explaining how the world was formed
Where was Sumar?
the Tigris-Euphrates river vally
sumarian creation myth
2 gods, married & had kids, kids overthrew them, used bodies to make earth & sky & clay to make people
Sumarian creator
Marduk
Sumarian mother godess
Tiamat
Sumarian father god
Apsu