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85 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The Aztecs
Native Americans who that lived in what is now Mexico and routinely offered their gods human sacrifices, these people were violent, yet built amazing pyramids and built a great civilization without having a wheel.
The Mound Builders
Indians of the Ohio River Valley
The Mississippian Settlement
At Cahokia, near present-day East St. Louis, Illionis, was home to about 40,000 people in at 1100 A.D.
This was legendary leader who inspired the Iroquois, a powerful group of Native Americans in the northeastern woodlands of the U.S.
The Norse
These Vikings discovered America in about 1000 A.D., when they discovered modern-day Newfoundland. They abandoned it later due to bad conditions.
Marco Polo
Italian adventurer who supposedly sailed to the Far East in 1295 and returned with stories and supplies of the Asian life there.
Bartholomeu Dias
A Portuguese sailor, he was the first to round the southernmost tip of Africa, a feat he did in 1488
Vasco da Gama
In 1498, he reached INdia and returned home with a small but tantalizing cargo of jewels and spices.
Ferdinand of Aragon / Isabella of Castile
The wedded king and queen of Spain, their marriage united the previously non-existing country.
Christopher Columbus
An Italian seafarer who persuaded Spain to give him three ships for which to sail west to look for a better route to India, he "discovered" America in 1492
Vasco Nunez Balboa
Discoverer of the Pacific Ocean in 1513.
Ferdinand Magellan
IN 1519, his crew began a voyage and eventually ended becoming the first to circumnavigate the world, even though he died in the Philippines. The sole surviving ship returned to Europe in 1522.
Ponce de Leon
In 1513 and 1521, this Spanish Explorer explored Florida, searching for gold (contrary to the myth of his seeking the "fountain of Youth").
Francisco Coronado
From 1540 to 1542, he explored the pueblos of Arizona and New Mexico, penetrating as far east as Kansas. He also discovered the Grand Canyon and enormous herds of bison.
Hernando de Soto
From 1539 to 1542, he explored Florida and crossed the Mississippi River. he brutally abused Indians and died of fever and battle wounds.
Francisco Pizarro
IN 1532, he crushed the Incas of Peru and got lots of bounty
Bartolome de Las Casas
A Spanish missionary who was appalled by the method of encomienda, calling it "a moral pestilence invented by Satan"
Hernan Cortes
Annihilator of the Aztec in 1519.
A female Indian slave who knew Mayan and Nahuatl, the language of the Aztec.
The leader of the Aztecs at the time of Cortes invasion who believed the Cortes was the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl.
Giovanni Caboto
AKA John Cabot, he explored the northeastern coaster of North America in 1497-1498
Giovanni da Verranzo
An Italian explorer dispatched by the French King in 1524 to probe the eastern seaboard of U.S.
Don Juan de Onate
Leader of a Spanish group that traversed parts of Mexico, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas in 1598, he and his men proclaimed the province of New Mexico in 1609 and founded its capital, Santa Fe.
Robert de La Salle
Sent by the French, he went on an expedition down the Mississippi in the 1680s.
Juan Rodriquez Csabrillo
He explored the California coast in 1542 but failed to find anything of interest.
Father Juanipero Serra
The Spanish missionary who founded 21 missions in California, in 1769, he founded Mission San Diego, the first of the chain.q
Indian word for Corn
the Spanish word for conqueror, these explorers claimed much of America for Spain, slaughtering millions of natives in the process.
a euphemism for slavery in which Indians were given to colonists to be Christianized.
Dia de la raza
Spanish for Columbus Day.
Lake Bonneville
massive prehistoric lake, all of which remains today in the form of the Great Salt Lake
Treaty of Tordesillas
treaty that settled Spanish and Portuguese's differences in the Americas Portugal got modern day Brazil; Spanish got the rest.
Pope's Rebellion
Revolt in which Indians took over New Mexico and held control for nearly half a nentury
Capital of the West African kingdom of Mali, a place located in the Niger River Valley, Madeira, the Canaries, Sao Tome, Pricipe.
Madeira, the Canaries, Sao Tome, Pricipe
Areas where sugar plantations were established by Portugal then Spain where African slaves were forced to work.
A rich silver mine in Bolivia that enriched Spain with lots of wealth.
Spain founded __________.
France founded _________.
England founded ________.
Santa Fe
King Henry VIII
King who broke with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s and lunched the English Protestant Reformation.
Elizabeth I
Protestant Queen who knighted Sir Francis Drake, and also the cause for the Catholic Irish Uprising
King James I
gave Virginia Company received a charter from King James I to make a settlement in the New Wold in 1606.
Virginia Charter
important, because it granted settlers the same rights as living in England
Captain John Smith
took control and whipped the colonists into discipline, and was kidnapped by chief Powhatan, and "saved" by Pocahontas
Lord De La Warr
lead the relief party in 1610, and lead war against indians
Lord Baltimore
founded Maryland, and it was the second plantation colony and fourth overall colony to be formed. Place for persecuted Catholics to find refuge. Many protestants however lived there. Main crop :tobacco
King Charles I
beheaded, oliver Cromwell rule 10 years, before Charles II was restored to throne.
King George II
Georgia was named after him for English debtors
James Ogelthorpe
dynamic soldier statesman, repelled Spanish attacks.
John Wesley
founded Methodism
inspired the Iroquois
Martin Luther
nailed 95 thesis to door of the Wittenberg cathedral
John Calvin
founded Calvinism (predestination), and in 1536, write up the Institutes of the Christian Religion
King James I
father of the beheaded Charles I, harassed the Separatists out of england because he thought that if people could defy him as their spiritual leader, they might defy him as their political ruler.
Captain Myles Standish
proved to be a great fighter and negotiator
William Bradford
chosen governor of Plymouth 30 times in the annual elections, was a great leader, and helped Plymouth to survive and trade fur, fish, and lumber
John Winthrop
was elected governor or deputy governor for 19 years, helping Massachusetts prosper in fur trading, fishing, and shipbuilding.
John Cotton
prominent clergy member, was educated at Cambridge and had immigrated to Massachusetts to avoid persecution from his criticism of the Church of England.
Michael Wigglesworth
write "Day of Doom" sold 1 person out every 20 people
Anne Hutchinson
intelligent woman who claimed that a holy life was no sure sign of salvation and that the truly saved need not bother to obey the law of either God or man. Bought to trial in 1638, Anne boasted the her beliefs were directly from God. Went to Rhode Island, died in New York.
Reverend Thomas Hooker
led an energetic group of Puritans west
a Wampanoag, helped keep relative peace
called King Philip by the English, united neighboring Indians in a last ditched attack that failed
Charles II Punishment on Massachusetts
-sea to sea charter was given to rival Connecticut
-charter was given to Rhode Island
-1684, Massachusetts charter revoked
Dominion of New England
was created to bolster the colonial defense against Indians and tying the colonies closer to Britain by enforcing the hated Navigation Acts.
-acts forbade American trade with countries other than Britain
Sir Edmund Andros
Establishing HQ in Boston, he openly showed his association with the locally hated Church of England.
-Curb town meetings, restricts courts and press, revoking all land titles,taxed people with their consent.
Henry Hudson
ventured into Delaware and New York Bay and claimed the area for the Netherlands
Peter Stuyvesant
Dutch sent him to besiege the main Swedish fort, and he won, ending Swedish colonial rule, and only leaving only Swedish log cabins and place names as evidence that Swedes were every where in Delaware
Duke of York
Charles II granted the area of modern day New York to his brother.
British troops landed and defeated the Dutch kicking them out, without much violence.
William Penn
founded Pennsylvania, in honor of Penn. Best advertised of all the colonies.
Chief Tammany
later patron saint of New York's political Tammany Hall.
Ben Franklin
1720, entered Philadelphia as a seventeen year old with a loaf of bread under each arm.
good for tobacco cultivation
Nathaniel Bacon
led a few thousand of these men in a rebellion against hostile conditions. hated Berkeley's friendly policies towards Indians.
accounted for 6 percent of the population, most were protestant (Lutheran) and were called the Pennsylvania Dutch.
7 percent of the population, reached MAerica and became squatters, and they seemed to try to move as far from Britain as possible. March of the Paxons Boys.
Mollasses Act
HAct which hinders its trade with French West Indies
2 main tax supported churches
Angelican, and Congregational
Angelican official in Georgia and both Carolinas, Virginia, Maryland,a and were a part of New York. Sermons were shorter and its descriptions of hell were less frightening. The Congregational church had grown from the Puritan church and it was established in all the New England colonies except for Rhode Island.
Johnathan Edwards
preacher with fiery preaching methods, emotional moving
George Whitefield
better than Edwards, and made Edwards weep, and persuaded Ben Franklin to empty his pockets into the collection plate.
Great Awakening
led to founding of colleges and university
John Trumbull
of Connectuit, discouraged as a youth by his father
Charles Willson Peale
best known for his portraits of George Washington, ran a museum, stuffed birds, and practiced dentistry
Benjamin West and John Copley
had to go to England to complete their ambitious careers
Phillis Wheatley
slave hirl who had never been formally educated did to to Britain and publish a book of verse and subsequently wrote other polished poems that revealed the influence of Alexander Pope.
John Peter Zenger
A new York newspaper printer, was taken to court and charged with seditious libel. Judge urged the jury to consider that the mere fact of publishing was a crime, but Zenger won. Freedom of press was pretty much assured in America.
Lord Cornbury
made governor of New York and New Jersey, proved to be a drunkard, a spendthrift, a gafter, and embezzler, a religoius bigot, and a vain fool.