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125 Cards in this Set

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Present perfect subjunctive, forms of haber:
haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayáis, hayan
public
público/a
fast/accelerated
acelerado/a
police officer
el/la policía
speed limit
el limite de velocidad
driver
el/la conductor(a)
natural resources
los recursos naturales
Talking about what you had (or had not) done before a given time in the past, examples:
"Before graduating from high school, I hadn't studied Spanish."
-"Antes de graduarme en la escuela secundaria, no había estudiado español."
Talking about what you had (or had not) done before a given time in the past:
use the past participle with the imperfect form of haber.

Había, habías, había, habíamos, habíais habían
Present perfect indicative, forms of haber
he, has, ha, hemos, habéis, han
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

(son)reír
(son)reído
Present perfect indicative:

present perfect form of hay (there has been/there have been)
HAY HABIDO.

"There's been an accident."
- "Ha habido un accidente."
Present perfect indicative:

Form of past participle never changes with haber, regardless of gender or number. Past participle always appears immediately after the haber form, never separated. Object pronouns and no are always placed directly before the form of haber
"She's changed a flat tire several times."
- "Ella ha cambiado una llanta desinflada varias veces."

"They still haven't checked the car's oil."
- Todavía no le han revisado el aceite al coche."
Present perfect indicative:

Past participle is used with present tense forms of haber
"We have been here before."
- "Nos hemos estado aquí antes."

"I've had a very good time."
- "Me he divertido mucho.

"They've already written her the letter."
- "Ya le han escrito la carta."
traffic signal
el semáforo
to keep on going, to go (straight ahead)
sequir (i,i) (g) (todo derecho)
to obey
obedecer (zc)

*obedezco
to drive
manejar, conducir (zc)

*conduzco
to park
estacionar
driver's license
la licencia de manejar/conducir
street, road
el camino
highway
la carretera
freeway
la autopista
(repair) shop
el taller
gas station
la gasolinera o la estación de gasolina
traffic
la circulación o el tránsito
(fast) pace of life
el ritmo (acelerado) de la vida
natural resources
los recursos naturales
to change the oil
revisar el aceite
public transportation
el transporte público
public services
los servicios públicos
to protect
proteger (j)
to destroy
destruir (y)

destruyo, destruyes, destruye, destruímos, destruyen
to pollute
contaminar
to build
construir (y)

construyo, construyes, construye, construímos, construyen
to run out of, use up completely
acabar
farmer
el agricultor / la agricultora
(endangered) species
la especie (en peligro de extinción)
shortage, lack
la escasez (las escaseces)
whale
la ballena
wild animal
el animal salvaje
domesticated animal, pet
el animal doméstico
pollution (of air)
la contaminación (del aire)
factory
la fábrica
pure (clean) air
el aire puro
mountain
la montaña
tree
el árbol
farm
la finca
bull
el toro
cow
la vaca
lake
el lago
fish, fishes
el pez, peces
skyscrapers
el rascacielos
horse
el caballo
forest
el bosque
farm worker, peasant
el/la campesino/a
countryside, field
el campo
energy
la energía
electric energy
la energía eléctrica
nuclear energy
la energía nuclear
solar energy
la energía solar
lack, absence
la falta
government
el gobierno
population
la población
elephant
el elefante
gorilla
el gorila
to save, conserve
conservar
to develop
desarrollar
violence
la violencia
beautiful
bello/a
dense
denso/a
mechanic
el/la mecánico/a
windshield
parabrisas
tire
la llanta
tank
el tanque
corner
la esquina
gasoline
la gasolina
to check
revisar
oil
el aceite
street
la calle
to start up (a car)
arrancar (qu)
to fix, repair
arreglar
to run into, collide (with)
chocar (qu) (con)
to turn
doblar
to use (a lot of gas)
gastar (mucha gasolina)
to fill (up)
llenar
to stop
parar
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

abrir
abierto
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

cubrir (to cover)
cubierto
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

decir
dicho
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

descubrir
descubierto
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

escribir
escrito
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

hacer
hecho
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

morir
muerto
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

poner
puesto
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

resolver
resuelto
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

romper
roto
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

ver
visto
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

volver
vuelto
past participle used as an adjective:

-ar verbs
end with -ado (except irregular)
past participle used as an adjective:

-er and -ir verbs
end with -ido (except irregular)
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

-er/-ir verbs with stems ending in -a, -e, or -o
an accent mark is used
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

caer
caído
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

creer
creído
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

leer
leído
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

oír
oído
past participle used as an adjective, irregular forms:

traer
traído
past participle use:

adjective to modify a noun (agrees in number & gender w/modified noun)
"They live in a house built in 1920."

"Viven en una casa construída en 1920."
past participle use:

with estar to describe conditions that are the result of a previous action
"The lake is polluted."

"El lago está contaminado"
Present perfect subjunctive,
uses
used to express "I have done..." when the subjunctive is required.
Present perfect subjunctive, examples
"It's possible that he may have done (he did) it."
- "Es posible que lo haya hecho."

"I'm glad that you have come (you came)."
-"Me alegro de que hayas venido."

"It's good that they built (have built) it."
-"Es bueno que lo hayan construido."
river
el río
nature
la naturaleza
rhythm, pace
el ritmo
service
el servicio
to avoid
evitar
to recycle
reciclar
to resolve
resolver (ue)
level
el nivel
brakes
los frenos
sidewalk
la acera
car horn
la bocina
roadway, route (two way)
la via (de doble via)
all-terrain
todoterreno
Haber: past, perfect subjunctive
Haber: el subjunctivo pasado, perfecto:hubiera, hubieras, hubiera, hubiéramos, hubierais, hubieran