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123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
adenoids
Collections of lymph tissue in the nasopharynx; also called pharyngeal tonsils
alveolus (plural: alveoli)
Air sac in the lung
apex of the lung
Uppermost portion of the lung. The apex is the top, end, or tip of a structure. Apical means pertaining to the apex.
base of the lung
Lower portion of the lung; from the Greek, basis, foundation.
bronchioles
Smallest branches of the bronchi
bronchus (plural: bronchi)
Branch of the trachea (windpipe) that is a passageway into the air spaces of the lung; bronchial tube.
carbon dioxide (CO2)
A gas produced by body cells when oxygen and food combine; exhaled through the lungs.
cilia
Thin hairs attached to the mucous membrane epithelium lining the respiratory tract. They clear bacteria and foreign substances from the lung. Smoking cigarettes impairs the function of cilia.
diaphragm
Muscle separating the chest and abdomen. It is the most important muscle for breathing.
epiglottis
Lid-like piece of cartilage that covers the larynx, preventing food from entering the larynx and trachea during swallowing.
expiration
Breathing out (exhalation)
Glottis
Opening to the larynx
hilum (of lung)
Midline region where the bronchi, blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the lungs. Hilar means pertaining to the hilum.
inspiration
Breathing in (inhalation)
larynx
Voice box
lobe
Division of a lung
mediastinum
Region between the lungs in the chest cavity. It contains the trachea, heart, aorta, esophagus, and bronchial tubes.
oxygen (O2)
Gas that passes into the bloodstream at the lungs and travels to all body cells
palatine tonsil
One of a pair of almond-shaped masses of lymphoid tissue in the oropharynx (palatine means pertaining to the roof of the mouth)
paranasal sinus
One of the air cavities in the bones near the nose
parietal pleura
The outer fold of pleura lying closest to the ribs and wall of the thoracic cavity
pharynx
Throat; composed of the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
pleura
Double-folded membrane surrounding each lung
pleural cavity
Space between the folds of the pleura
pulmonary parenchyma
The essential cells of the lung, those performing its main function; the air sacs (alveoli) and small bronchioles.
trachea
Windpipe
visceral pleura
The inner fold of pleura lying closest to the lung tissue
adenoid/o
adenoids
alveol/o
alveolus, air sac
bronch/o
bronchi/o
bronchial tube, bronchus
bronchiol/o
bronchiole, small bronchus
capn/o
carbon dioxide
coni/o
dust
cyan/o
blue
epiglott/o
epiglottis
laryng/o
larynx, voice box
lob/o
lobe of the lung
mediastin/o
mediastinum
nas/o
nose
orth/o
staight, upright
ox/o
oxygen
pector/o
chest
pharyng/o
pharynx, throat
phon/o
voice
phren/o
diaphragm
pleur/o
pleura
pneum/o
pneumon/o
air, lung
pulmon/o
lung
rhin/o
nose
sinus/o
sinus, cavity
spir/o
breathing
tel/o
complete
thorac/o
chest
tonsill/o
tonsils
trache/o
trachea, windpipe
-ema
condition
Em-
in
-osmia
smell
-pnea
breathing
-ptysis
spitting
-sphyxia
pulse
-thorax
pleural cavity, chest
auscultation
Listening to sounds within the body
percussion
Tapping on a surface to determine the difference in the density of the underlying structure
pleural rub
Scratchy sound produced by the motion of inflamed or irritated pleural surfaces rubbing against each other; also called a friction rub.
rales (crackles)
Abnormal crackling sounds heard during inspiration when there is fluid, blood, or pus in the alveoli
sputum
Material expelled from the chest by coughing or clearing the throat
stridor
Strained, high-pitched, noisy sound made on inspiration; associated with obstruction of the larynx or trachea.
wheezes
Continuous high-pitched whistling sounds heard when air is forced through a narrow space during inspiration or expiration
Upper Respiratory Disorders:

croup
Acute viral infection in infants and children; characterized by obstruction of the larynx, barking cough, and stridor.
Upper Respiratory Disorders:

diphtheria
Acute infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by the diphtheria bacterium (Corynebacterium)
Upper Respiratory Disorders:

epistaxis
Nosebleed
Upper Respiratory Disorders:

pertussis
Bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea caused by Bordetella pertussis, a highly contagious bacterium. Also known as whooping cough.
Bronchial Tube Disorders:

asthma
Chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by airway obstruction caused by edema, bronchoconstriction, and increased mucus production
Bronchial Tube Disorders:

bronchiectasis
Chronic dilation of a bronchus secondary to infection in the lower lobes of the lung
Bronchial Tube Disorders:

bronchogenic carcinoma (lung cancer)
Cancerous tumors arising from a bronchus
Bronchial Tube Disorders:

chronic bronchitis
Inflammation of the bronchi persisting over a long time
Bronchial Tube Disorders:

cystic fibrosis
Inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick, mucous secretions that do not drain normally
Lung Disorders:

atelectasis
Incomplete (atel/o) expansion (-ectasis) of alveoli; collapsed, functionless, airless lung or portion of a lung. Caused by tumor or other obstruction of the bronchus, or poor respiratory effort
Lung Disorders:

emphysema
Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls
Lung Disorders:

pneumoconiosis
Abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, with chronic inflammation, infection, and bronchitis
Lung Disorders:

pneumonia
Acute inflammation and infection of alveoli, which fill with pus or products of the inflammatory reaction
Lung Disorders:

pulmonary abcess
A large collection of pus (bacterial infection) in the lungs
Lung Disorders:

pulmonary edema
Swelling and fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles
Lung Disorders:

pulmonary embolism (PE)
Clot (thrombus) or other material lodges in vessels of the lung
Lung Disorders:

pulmonary fibrosis
Formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lungs
Lung Disorders:

sarcoidosis
Chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause in which small nodules or tubercles develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs
Lung Disorders:

tuberculosis (TB)
Infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; lungs are usually involved, but any organ in the body may be affected
Pleural Disorders:

mesothelioma
Rare malignant tumor arising in the pleura and associated with exposure to asbestos
Pleural Disorders:

pleural effusion
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (cavity)
Pleural Disorders:

pleurisy (pleuritis)
Inflammation of the pleura
Pleural Disorders:

pneumothorax
Collection of air in the pleural space
anthracosis
Coal dust accumulation in the lungs
asbestosis
Asbestos particles accumulate in the lungs
bacilli (singular: bacillus)
Rod-shaped bacteria (cause of tuberculosis)
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Chronic condition of persistent obstruction of air flow through bronchial tubes and lungs
cor pulmonale
Failure of the right side of the heart to pump a sufficient amount of blood to the lungs because of underlying lung disease
exudate
Fluid, cells, or other substances (pus) that slowly leave cells or capillaries through pores or small breaks in cell membranes.
hydrothorax
Collection of fluid in the pleural cavity
palliative
Relieving symptoms, but not curing the disease
paroxysmal
Pertaining to a sudden occurence, such as a spasm or seizure; oxysm/o means sudden
pulmonary infarction
An area of dead (necrotic) tissue in the lung
purulent
Containing pus
rhonchi
Coarse, loud rales caused by secretions in bronchial tubes
silicosis
Silica or glass dust in the lungs; occurs in mining occupations
Clinical Procedures:

chest x-ray
Radiographic imaging of the thoracic cavity
Clinical Procedures:

chest tomograms
A series of x-ray images each showing a "slice" of the chest at different depths. Tomograms detect small masses not seen on regular films.
Clinical Procedures:

computed tomography
(CT scan of the chest)
Computer-generated x-ray images show thoracic structures in cross-section
Clinical Procedures:

pulmonary angiography
X-ray images taken after injecting radiopaque contrast into the pulmonary artery or right side of the heart
Clinical Procedures:

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Magnetic waves create detailed images of the chest in frontal, lateral, and cross-sectional (axial) planes
Clinical Procedures
(Radioactive Test):

ventilation-perfusion (V-Q)scan
Detection device records radioactivity after injection of a radioisotope or inhalation of small amount of radioactive gas(xenon).

This test can identify areas of the lung not receiving air flow (ventilation) or blood flow (perfusion).
Clinical Procedures:

bronchoscopy
Fiber-optic or rigid endoscope inserted into the bronchial tubes for diagnosis, biopsy, or collection of specimens.
Clinical Procedures:

endotracheal intubation
Placement of a tube through the mouth into the pharynx, larynx, and trachea to establish an airway.

This procedure allows a person to be placed on a ventilator.
Clinical Procedures:

laryngoscopy
Visual examination of the voice box
Clinical Procedures:

lung biopsy
Removal of lung tissue followed by microscopic examination
Clinical Procedures:

mediastinoscopy
Endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum
Clinical Procedures:

pulmonary function tests (PFTs)
Tests that measure the ventilation mechanics of the lung (airway function, lung volume, and capacity of the lungs to exchange oxygen and carbon dixide efficiently).
Clinical Procedures:

thoracentesis
Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pleural space
Clinical Procedures:

thoracotomy
Major surgical incision of the chest
Clinical Procedures:

thorascopy
Visual examination of the chest via small incisions and use of an endoscope
Clinical Procedures:

tracheostomy
Creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck
Clinical Procedures:

tuberculin test
Determines past or present tuberculosis infection based on a positive skin reaction
Clinical Procedures:

tube thoracostomy
Chest tube is passed through an opening in the skin of the chest to continuously drain a pleural effusion