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116 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
angi/o
vessel
aort/o
aorta
arter/o
arteri/o
artery
ather/o
yellowish plaque, fatty substance
(the Greek 'athere', means "porridge")
atri/o
atrium, upper heart chamber
brachi/o
arm
cardi/o
heart
cholesterol/o
cholesterol (a lipid substance)
coron/o
heart
cyan/o
blue
myx/o
mucus
ox/o
oxygen
pericardi/o
pericardium
phleb/o
vein
sphygm/o
pulse
steth/o
chest
thromb/o
clot
valvul/o
valv/o
valve
vas/o
vessel
vascul/o
vessel
ven/o
ven/i
vein
ventricul/o
ventricle, lower heart chamber
arrhythmias
Abnormal heart rhythms (dysrhythmias)
heart block
(atrioventricular block)
Failure of proper conduction of impulses through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
flutter
Rapid but regular contractions of atria or ventricles
fibrillation
Rapid, random, ineffectual, and irregular contractions of the heart
(350 beats or more per minute)
congenital heart disease
abnormalities in the heart at birth
Congenital Anomaly:

coarctation of the aorta (CoA)
Narrowing (coarctation) of the aorta
Congenital Anomaly:

patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
A small duct (ductus arteriosus) between the aorta and the pulmonary artery, which normally closes soon after birth, remains open (patent)
Congenital Anomaly:

septal defects
Small holes in the septa between the atria (atrial septal defects) or the ventricles (ventricular septal defects)
Congenital Anomaly:

tetralogy of Fallot
A congenital malformation of the heart involving four (tetra-) distinct defects
congestive heart failure
The heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood
(more blood enters the heart from the veins than leaves through the arteries)
coronary artery disease
Disease of the arteries surrounding the heart
endocarditis
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart caused by bacteria (bacterial endocarditis)
hypertensive heart disease
High blood pressure affecting the heart
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
Improper closure of the mitral valve
murmur
An extra heart sound, heard between normal beats caused by improper closure of the heart valves
pericarditis
Inflammation of the membrane (pericardium) surrounding the heart
rheumatic heart disease
Heart disease caused by rheumatic fever
aneurysm
Local widening (dilation) of an arterial wall
hypertension (HTN)
High blood pressure
peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
Blockage of blood vessels outside the heart
Raynaud disease
Short episodes of pallor and cyanosis in the fingers and toes
varicose veins
Abnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually occurring in the legs
acute coronary syndromes
The consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries; unstable angina and myocardial infarction
angina (pectoris)
Chest pain resulting from a temporary difference between the supply and the demand of oxygen to the heart muscle
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
Antihypertensive drugs that block the conversion of angiotension I to angiotensin II and reduce blood vessel construction. They prevent heart attacks.
auscultation
Listening with a stethoscope
beta-blockers
Drugs used to treat angina, hypertension, and arrhythmias. They block the action of epinephrine (Adrenalin) at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeat and reducing the workload on the heart.
bruit
An abnormal sound heard on auscultation
calcium channel blockers
Drugs used to treat angina and hypertension. They dilate blood vessels by blocking the influx of calcium into muscle cells lining vessels
cardiac tamponade
Pressure on the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space
claudication
Pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking has begun, but absence of pain at rest
digoxin
A drug that treats arrhythmias and strengthens the heartbeat
emboli (singular: embolus)
Collections of material (clots or other substances) that travel to and suddenly block a blood vessel
infarction
Area of dead tissue
nitrates
Drugs used in the treatment of angina. They dilate blood vessels, increasing blood flow and oxygen to myocardial tissue
nitroglycerin
A nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina
occlusion
Closure of a blood vessel
palpitations
Uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias
patent
Open
petechiae
Small, pinpoint hemorrhages
statins
Drugs used to lower cholesterol in the bloodstream
thrill
Vibration felt on palpation of the chest
vegetations
Clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on the endocardium in conditions such as bacterial endocarditis and rheumatic heart disease
aorta
Largest artery in the body
arteriole
Small artery
artery
Largest type of blood vessel; carries blood away from the heart to all parts of the body. (Notice that artery and away begin with an "a")
atrioventricularbundle
(bundle of His)
Specialized muscle fibers in the wall between the ventricles that carry the electric impulses to the ventricles
atrioventricular node
(AV node)
Specialized tissue at the base of the wall between the two upper heart chambers. Electrical impulses pass from the pacemaker (SA node) through the AV node to the bundle of His
atrium (ploral: atria)
One of two upper chambers of the heart
capillary
Smallest blood vessel. Materials pass to and from the bloodstream through the thin capillary walls
carbon dioxide (CO2)
Gas (waste) released by body cells, transported via veins to the heart, and then to the lungs for exhalation
coronary arteries
The blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle
deoxygenated blood
Blood that is oxygen-poor
diastole
Relaxation phase of the heartbeat. From the Greek 'diastole', meaning "dilation"
endocardium
Inner lining of the heart
endothelium
Innermost lining of blood vessels
mitral valve
Valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle of the heart; bicuspid valve
myocardium
Muscle layer of the heart
oxygen
Gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells
pacemaker
Specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begins the heartbeat; also called the sinoatrial node. A cardiac pacemaker is an electronic appartus implanted in the chest to stimulate heart muscle
pericardium
Sac-like membrane surrounding the heart
pulmonary artery
Artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs
pulmonary circulation
Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
pulmonary valve
Positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
pulmonary vein
One of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
pulse
Beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries
septum (plural: septa)
Partition; in the cardiovascular system, between the right and left sides of the heart
sinoatrial node (SA node)
Pacemaker of the heart
sphygmomanometer
Instrument to measure blood pressure
systemic circulation
Flow of blood from the body cells to the heart and back out from the heart to the cells
systole
Contraction phase of the heartbeat. From the Greek 'systole', meaning "A contracting"
tricuspid valve
Located between the right atrium and the right ventricle; it has three leaflets, or cusps
Laboratory Test:

lipid tests
Measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides in a blood sample
Laboratory Test:

lipoprotein electrophoresis
Lipoproteins (combinations of fat and protein) are physically separated in a blood sample
Laboratory Test:

serum enzyme tests
Chemicals measured in the blood as evidence of a heart attack
Clinical Procedures Diagnostic - X-Ray:

angiography
X-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material
Clinical Procedures Diagnostic - X-Ray:

digital subtraction angiography (DSA)
Video equipment and a computer produce x-ray images of blood vessels
Clinical Procedures Diagnostic - Ultrasound Tests:

Doppler ultrasound
Sound waves measure movement of blood flow
Clinical Procedures Diagnostic - Ultrasound Tests:

echocardiography (ECHO)
High-frequency sound waves and echoes produce images of the heart
Clinical Procedures Diagnostic -
Nuclear Cardiology:

positron emission tomography (PET) scan
Images showing blood flow and function of the myocardium following uptake of radioactive substances
Clinical Procedures Diagnostic -
Nuclear Cardiology:

technetium (Tc)
99m Sestamibi scan
Technetium 99m sestamibi is injected IV and taken up in the area of an MI
Clinical Procedures Diagnostic -
Nuclear Cardiology:

thallium 201 scan
Concentration of a radioactive substance is measured in the myocardium
Clinical Procedures Diagnostic -
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI):

cardiac MRI
Images of cardiac tissue are produced with magnetic waves
Other Dianostic Procedures:

cardiac catheterization
A thin, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or an artery
Other Dianostic Procedures:

electrocardiography (ECG, EKG)
Recording of electricity flowing through the heart
Other Dianostic Procedures:

Holter monitoring
An ECG device is worn during a 24-hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias
Other Dianostic Procedures:

stress test
Exercise tolerance test(ETT) determines the heart's response to physical exertion (stress)
Treatment Procedures:

cardioversion (defibrillation)
Very brief discharges of electricity, applied across the chest to stop arrhythmias
Treatment Procedures:

coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
Arteries and veins are anastomosed to coronary arteries to detour around blockages
Treatment Procedures:

endarterectomy
Surgical removal of the diseased inner layers of an artery
Treatment Procedures:

extracorporeal circulation
A heart-lung machine diverts blood from the heart and lungs while the heart is being repaired
Treatment Procedures:

heart transplantation
A donor heart is transferred to a recipient
Treatment Procedures:

percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)
A balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery; stents are put in place
Treatment Procedures:

thrombolytic therapy
Drugs to dissolve clots are injected into the bloodstream of patients with coronary thrombosis