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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
external respiration
oxygen is inhaled
internal respiration
exchange of gases at the cells within all organs of the body
cilia
fine hairs in the nasal cavity to help filter out foreign bodies, warm and moisten the air
paranasal sinuses
hollow, air-containing spaces within the skull
three divisions of the pharynx
1. nasopharynx
2. oropharynx
3. laryngopharynx
nasopharynx
contains pharyngeal tonsils, aka the adenoids, which are collections of lymphatic tissue
oropharynx
closer to the mouth (oral) and contains the palatine tonsils, two rounded masses of lymphatic tissue
laryngopharynx
serves as a common passageway for food from the mouth and air from the nose.

It also divides into two branches:

1. larynx
2. esophagus
epiglottis
a flap of catilage attached to the root of the tongue, prevents choking or aspiration of food. It acts as a lid over the opening of the larynx. During swallowing, when food and liquid move through the throat, the epiglottis closes over the larynx.
trachea
kept open by 16 to 20 C-shaped rings of catilage separated by fibrous connective tissue that stiffen the front and sides of the tube
bronchi
each bronchus leads to a separate lung and divides and subdivides into smaller and finer tubes, somewhat like the branches of a tree
bronchioles
smallest of the bronchial tubes
alveoli
clusters of air sacs at the end of each bronchiole. Each alveolus is lined with a one-cell layer of epithelium. This very thin wall permits an exchnage of gases between the alveolus and the capillary.
capillary
blood flowing through the capillary accepts oxygen from the alveolus while depositing carbon dioxide into the alveolous.
erythrocytes
in the blood carry oxygen to all parts of the body and carbon dioxide to the lungs for exhaltion
pleura
each lung is covered by this double-folded membrane
parietal pleura
outer layer of the pleura, nearest the ribs
visceral pleura
inner layer closest to the lung
lobes
each lung is divided into lobes. The right lung (which is larger) has 3 lobes and the left lung has 2 lobes
apex
uppermost part of the lung
base
lower area of the lung
hilum
middle area of the lung
inspiration
inhalation
expiration
exhalation
pulmonary parenchyma
essential cells of the lung - those performing its main function: the air sacs and small bronchioles
carbon dioxide
a gas produced by body cells when oxygena nd food combine; exhaled through the lungs
exudates
fluid
anthracosis
coal dust
asbestosis
asbestos particles
silicosis
silica or glass
nosocomial
hospital