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169 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
agglutination
the clumping together of cells as a result of interaction with specific antibodies called agglutinins
albumin
a plasma protein
allergen
a substance that can produce a hypersensitive reaction in the body
allergy
a hypersensitive reaction to normally harmless antigens, most of which are environmental
anaphylaxis
an exaggerated, life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction to a previously encountered antigen
anisocytosis
an abnormal condition of the blood characterized by red blood cells of variable an dabnormal size
antibodies
substance produced by the body in response to bateria, viruses or other foreign substances.
ascites
an abnormal intraperitonealaccumulation of a fluid containing large amounts of protein and elecrolytes
basophil
a granulocytic white bloodcell characterized by cytoplasmic granules that stain blue when exposed to a basic dye
bilirubin
the orange-yellow pigment of bile formed principallyby the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells after termination of their normal life span
coagulation
the process of transforming a liquid into a solid, especially of the blood
corpuscle
any cell of the body
differentiaion
a process in development in which unspecialized cells or tissues are systemically modified and altered to achieve specific and characteristic physical forms
dyscrasia
an abnormal condition of the blood or bone marrow, such as leukemia, aplastic anemia
edema
abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissues
electrophoresis
the movement of charged suspended particles through a liquid medium in response to changes in an electric field
enzyme
organic substance tha tinitiates and accelerates a chemical reation
eosinophil
granulocytic, bilobed leukocyte somewhat larger than a neutrophil characterized by large numbers
erythremia
abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells
erythroblast
immature red blood cell
erythrocyte
mature blood cell
erythropoiesis
process of red blood cell production
erythropoietin
a hormone synthesized mainly in the kidneys and released into the bloodstreamin response to anoxia
fibrin
stringy imsoluble protein that is the substance of a blood clot
fibrinogen
plasma protein that is converted into fibrin by thrombin in the presence of calcium ions
globin
a group of four globulin protein molecules that become bound by the iron in heme molecules to form hemoglobin
globulin
plasma protein made in the liver.
granulocytes
types of leukocyte characterized by the presence of cytoplasmic gramules
hematologist
medical specialist in the field of hematology
hematology
scientific study of a bolld and blood-forming tissues
heme
pigmented, iron-contining nonprotein portion of the hemoglobin molecule
hemoglobin
complex protein-iron compound in the blood that carries oxygen to teh cells from the lungs and carbon dioxide away form the cells to the lungs
hemolysis
the breakdown of red blood cells and the release of hemoglobin the occures normally at the end of the life span of a red cell
hemorrhage
loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time externally or internally
hemostasis
termination of bleeding by mechanical or chamical means or by hte complex coagulation process of the body
heparin
naturally occurring anticlotting factor present in the body
hyperalbuminemia
increased level of albumin in the blood
hyperlipemia
excessive level of blood fats
hyperbilirubinemia
greater than normal amounts of the bile pigment bilirubin in the blood
leukocyte
a white blood cell
leukocytopenia
abnomal decreasee in the number of white blood cells to fewer than 5,000 cells per cubic millimeter
megakaryoncyte
extremely large bone marrow cell
monocyte
large nononuclear leukocyte
myeloid
of or pertaining to teh bone marrow or the spinal cord
neutrophil
a polymorphnuclear granular leukocyte that stains easily with neutral dyes
pancytopenia
marked reduction in the number of the red, white blood cells, platelets
plasma
watery gluid portion of the lymph an dthe blood in which the leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets are suspended
platelet,
clotting cell; thrombocyte
prothromin
plasma protein precursor of thrombin
reticulocyte
immature erythrocyte characterized by mechlike pattern of threads and particles at the former site of the nucleus
septicemia
systemic infection in which pathogens are present in the circulating bloodstream, having spreadfrom an infection in any part of the body
serovonversion
a change in serlolgic tests from negative to positive as antibodies develop in reaction to an infection or vaccine
serology
the branch of laboratory medicine that studies blood serum for evidence of infection by evaluating antigen
serum
clear, thin, sticky fluid portion of the blood that remains after coagulation
splenomegaly
abnormal enlargement of the spleen
stem cell
a formative cell
thrombin
an enzyme formed from prothrombin calcium, and thromboplastin in plasma during the clotting process
thrombocyte
a clotting cell
thrombocytopenia
abnomal hematologic condition in which the number of platelets is reduced
thromboplastin
a complex substance the initiates the clotting process by converting prothrombin into thrombin in the presence of calcium ion
thrombus
a clot
agglutin
to clump
aniso
unequal
bas
base
blast
embryonic stage of development
chrom
color
coagul
clotting
cyt
cell
-emia
blood condition
eosin
re, rosy
erythr
red
-globin
containing protein
hem
blood
hemat
blood
is
equal
kary
nucleus
leuk
white
-lytic
destruction
mono
one
norph
form, shape
myel
bone marrow or spinal cord
nucle
nucleus
-oid
resembling
-osis
condition
-penia
decrease in; deficiency
-phage
to eat
phag
to eat
-philia
attraction to
phoresis
transmission
-poiesis
formation
poikil
varied; irregular
sider
iron
spher
round; sphere
-stasis
stopping or controllin
thromb
clot
anemia
a condition in which there is a deficiency of oxygen being delivered to the cells because of a decrease in the quantity of hemoglobin or red blood cells
hemolytic anemia
extreve reduction in circulating RBC due to their destruction
pernicious anemia
a deficiency of mature RBC and the formation an dcirculation of megaloblasts
sickle cell, anemia
a chronic hereditary form of hemolytic anemia in which the RBC become shaped like a crescent in the presence of low oxygen concentration
granulocytosis
abnormally elevated number of granulocytes in the circulating blood as a reaction to any variety of inflammation or infection
hemochromatosis
a rare iron metabolism disease characterized by iron deposits throughout the body, usually as a complication of one of the hemolytic anemias
hemophilia
involves different hereditary inadequacies of coagulation factorsresulting in prolonged bleeding times
leukemia
excessive uncontrolled increase of immature WBC in the blood eventually leading to infection, anemia, and thrombocytopenia
multiple myeloma
a malignant plasma cell neoplasm
polycythemia vera
an abnormal increase in the number of RBC
purpura
a collection of blood beneath the skin in the form of pinpoint hemorrhages appearing as red-purple skin discolorations
thalassemia
a hereditary form of hemolytic anemia in which the alpha or beta hemoglobin chains are defective and the production of hemoglobin is deficient, creating hypochromic microcytic RBC
direct antiglobulin test
used to discover the presence of antierythrocyte antibdies present in theblood of an Rh negative woman.
bleeding time
measurement of the time required for bleeding to stop
blood transfusion
and administration of blood or a blood component to an individual to relace blood lost
bone marrow biopsy
microscopic exam of bone marrow tissue
complete blood cell count
series of test performed on peripheral blood
erythrocyte sedimentation
(ESR) a test performed on the blood, which measures the rate at which RBC settle out in a tube of unclotted blood
hematocrit
an assessment of RBC percentage in the total blood volume
hemoglobin test
concentration measurement of th ehemoglobin in the peripheral blood
lipid profile
measure the lipids in the blood
partial thromboplastin
a bolld test used to evaluate the common pathway and system of clot formation within the body
platelet count
the count of platelets per cubic mm of blood
prothrombin time
(PT) is a blood test used to evaluate the common pathway and extrinsic system of clot formation
RBC
the measurement of thecirculating number of RBC in 1mm cubed of peripheral blood
red blood cell morphology
an examination of the RBC on a stained blood smear that enables the examiner to identify the form and shape of the RBC
reticulocyte count
a measurement of thenumber of circulating immature erythrocytes in a blood specimen
rouleaux
an aggregation of RBC viewed through the microscope that may be an artifact
schilling test
analysis for pernicious anemia
WBC count
measurement of the corculatin number of WBC in 1mm cubed of peripheral blood
WBC differential
a measurement of the percentage of each specific type of circulating WBC present in 1mm cubed of peripheral blood
acquired immunity
immunity that is a result of the body developing the ability to defend itself against a specific agent
adenoids
masses of lymphatic tissue located near the opening of the nasal cavity into the pharynx (pharyngeal tonsils)
edema
accumulation of fluid within the tissue spaces
hypersensitivity
abnormal condition characterized by an excessive reaction to a particular stimulus
immune reaction
a defense function of the body that produces antibodies to destroy invading antigens and malignancies
immunity
the state of being resistant to or protected from a disease
immunization
process of creatin immunity to a specific disease
local reaction
a reaction to treatment that occures at the site where it was administered
lymph
interstitial fluid picked up by the lymphatic capillaries and eventually returned to the blood
lymphadenopathy
any disorder of thelymph nodes or lyph vessels
lymphocyte
small, agranulocytic leukocytes, originating from fetal stem celld and developing in the bone marrow
macrophage
any phagocytic cell involoved in the defense against infection in the disposal of the products of the breakdown of cells
natural immunity
immunity with which we are born; also genetic immunity
pathogens
disease producing microorganisms
phagocytosis
the process of a cell engulfing a destroying bacteria
resistance
the body's ability to counteract the effects of pathogens and other harmful agents
susceptible
a state of having a lack of resistance to pathogens and other harmful agents
T cells
cells that te important in the immune responce, they mature in the thymus
tonsils
masses of lymphatic tissue located in a protective ring, just under teh mucous membrane, surrounding the mouth and back of the throat
cyt
cell
hyper
excessive
immun
immune protection
lymph
lymph
lymphaden
lymph gland
lymphangi
lymphvessel
mon
one
sarc
flesh
acquired immunodeficiency syndromw
(AIDS) involves clinical conditions that destroy the body's immune system in the last or final phase of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
cytomegalovirus
a large species-specific, herpes-type virus with a wide variety of disease effects
hypersensitivity
tissue damage resulting from exaggerated immune responses
hypersplenism
a syndrome involfing a deficiency of one or more types of blood cells and an enlarged spleen
Kaposi's sarcoma
a locally destructive malignant neoplams of the blood vessels associated with aids typically foming lesions on the skin, visceral organs, or mucous membranes.
lymphoma
a lymphoid tissue noeplasm that is typically malignant
mononucleosis
typicallly is a bening, self-limiting acute infection of the B lymphocytes
myasthenia gravis
an autoimmune disease in which antibodies blodk or destroy some acetylcholine receptor sites
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
is caused by a common worldwide parasite
sarcoidosis
a systemic inflammatory disease resulting in the formation of multiple small, round lesions in the lungs
systemic lupus
an inflammatory connective tissue disease
tuberculosis
an infectious disease, primarily affecting the lungs
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
a bolld test used for screening for an antibody to the aids virus
western blot
test detects the presence of the antibodies to HIV the virus that causes AIDS
CT (CAT) scan
a collection of x-ray images taken from various angles following injection of a contrast medium
lymphangiogram
an x-ray assessment of the lymphatic system following injection of a contrast medium into the lymph vessels in the hand or foot