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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
arteriole
small artery
bowman capsule
cup-shaped capsule surrounding each glomerulus.
calyx or calix
(plural: calyces or calices)
cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis.
catheter
tube for injecting or removing fluids.
cortex
outer region of the kidney.
creatinine
waste product of muscle metabolism; nitrogenous waste excreted in urine.
electrolyte
a chemical that carries and electrical charge in a solution; potassium, sodium.
erythropoietin
a hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of red blood cells.
filtration
passive process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter or other material.
glomerulus
tiny balls of capillaries in the cortex of the kidney.
hilum
part of an organ where vessels and nerves enter and leave.
kidney
one of two bean-shaped organs located behind the abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region.
meatus
opening or canal
medulla
inner region; the renal medulla is the inner region of the kidney.
micturition
urination; the act of voiding.
nephron
the combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, reabsorbtion, and secretion take place in the kidney.
nitrogenous waste
substance containing nitrogen and excreted urine.
potassium (K+)
a salt (electrolyte) secreted from the bloodstream into the renal tubules to leave the body in urine.
reabsorption
when the renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream.
renal artery
carries blood to the kidney.
renal pelvis
central collecting region in the kidney.
renal tubule
microscopic tube in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration.
renal vein
carries blood away from the kidney
renin
-an enzymatic hormone synthesized, stored, and secreted by the kidney.

-increases blood pressure by influencing vasoconstriction.
sodium (Na+)
a salt (electrolyte) regulated in the blood and urine by the kidneys.
trigone
triangular area in the bladder where the ureters enter and the urethra exits.
urea
major nitrogenous waste product excreted in urine.
ureter
tube leading from each kidney to the bladder.
urethra
tube leading from the bladder to the outside of the body.
uric acid
nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine.
urinary bladder
sac that holds urine.
urination
process of expelling urine; also called micturition.
voiding
emptying of urine from the urinary bladder; urination or micturition.
cali/o
calic/o
calyx (calix)
cyst/o
urinary bladder
glomerul/o
glomerulus
meat/o
meatus
pyel/o
renal pelvis
trigon/o
trigone
ureter/o
ureter
urethr/o
urethra
vesic/o
urinary bladder
albumin/o
albumin (protein in the blood)
azot/o
nitrogen
bacteri/o
bacteria
dips/o
thirst
poly-
many; much
ket/o
keton/o
ketone bodies
lith/o
stone
noct/i
night
olig/o
scanty
-poietin
substance that forms.
py/o
pus
-tripsy
to crush
ur/o
urine (urea)
urin/o
urine
-uria
urination; urine condition
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
measurment of urea levels in blood.
creatinine clearance test
measures the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney.
intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
x-ray image of the kidneys and uterus after injection of a contrast into a vein.
kidneys, ureters, and bladder (KUB)
x-ray examination (without contrast) of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
renal angiography
x-ray examination (with contrast) of the vascular system (blood vessels) of the kidney.
retrograde pyelogram (RP)
x-ray images of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder after injecting contrast through a urinary catheter into the ureters.
voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)
x-ray record (with contrast) of the urinary bladder, ureters, and urethra while the patient is expelling urine.
ultrasonography
process of imaging urinary tract structures using high frequency sound waves.
radioisotope scan
image of the kidney, after injecting into the bloodstream, a radioactive substance (isotope) that concentrates in the kidney.
cystoscopy
direct visual examination of the urinary bladder with an endoscope (cystoscope)
dialysis
process of sepatating nitrogenous waste materials from the bloodstream when the kidneys no longer function.
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
(ESWL)
shock waves crush urinary tract stones, which then pass from the body in urine.
renal angioplasty
dilation of narrowed areas in renal arteries.
renal biopsy
removal of kidney tissue with microscopic examination by a pathologist.
renal transplantation
surgical transfer of a complete kidney from a donor to a recipient.
urinary catherization
passage of a flexible tubular instrument through the urethra into the urinary bladder.
ADH
antidiuretic hormone; vasopressin
ARF
acute renal failure
BILI
bilirubin
BUN
blood urea nitrogen
CAPD
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
Cath
catheter; catheterization
CCPD
continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis
CKD
chronic kidney disease
CL-
chloride
CRF
chronic renal failure; progressive loss of kidney function.
cysto
cystoscopic examination
ESRD
end-stage renal disease
ESWL
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy