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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cognitive MAp
A mental representation of the layout of ones enviornment.
Respondent Behavior
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to a stimulus.

Skinners term for behavior learned through classic conditioning.
Latent Learning
Learning that occurs but isn't apparent until there is incentitive to demonstrate it.
variable ratio schedule
in operant conditioning a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable amount of responses
variable interval schedule
in operant conditioning a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a resonse at unpredictable time intervals.
shaping
An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
reinforcer
in operant conditioning any event that strengthens the behavior that follows.
punishment
an event that decreases the behavior that follows.
primary reinforcer
an innately reinforing stimulus such as one that satisfies a biological need
positive reinforcement
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli such as food. *blank* is any stimulus that when presented after a response strengthens the response.
fixed ratio schedule
In operant conditioning a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
conditioned reinforcer
a stimulus that gains it reinforcing power through its asssociation with a primary reinforcer also known as secondary reinforcer.
extrinsic motivation
A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.
intrinsic motivation
A desire to perform a bahavior for its own sake.
associative learning
Learning that certain events occur together.
learning
a relatively permanent change in an organisms behavior due to experience
unconditioned stimulus
In classical conditioning a stimulus that unconditionally and naturally triggers a response
Aquisition
the initial stage in classical conditioning the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus. The strenghening of a reinforced response
behaviorism
view that psychology should
1) should be an objective science
2)study behavior without reference to mental processes.
*Most agree with (1) not (2).
discrimination
In classical conditioning the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned response.
extinction
Diminishing of conditioned response
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance after a pause of an extinguished conditioned response.
generalization
the tendancy once a response has been conditioned for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
Unconditional Response (UR)
unlearned naturally occuring response
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
an originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with and unconditoned stimulus (US) cones to trigger a conditioned response
Classical Conditioning
Atype of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli A natural stimulus that signals an Unconditioned stimulus. (US)
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
A stimulus that unconditionally naturally and automatically triggers a response.
pro social behavior
positive constructive healthy behavior opposite of anti social
observational learning
learning by observing others
modeling
the process of observing and imitating a certain behavior.
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so.
John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science of:
observable behavior.
Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a(n):
UR.
Conditioning seldom occurs when a(n) ________ comes after a(n) _____.
CS; US
Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when first shown her cousin's new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates:
spontaneous recovery
Punishment ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcement ________ the rate of operant responding.
decreases; increases
Because she has oversight responsibility for the servicing and repair of her company's fleet of cars, Rhonda frequently calls the garage mechanic to inquire whether service on various cars has been completed. Because service completion times are unpredictable, she is likely to be reinforced with positive responses to her inquiries on a ________ schedule.
variable-interval
If one chimpanzee watches a second chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward, the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. This best illustrates:
observational learning.
The predictability of an association between a CS and a US facilitates an organism's ability to anticipate the occurrence of the US. This fact is most likely to be highlighted by a(n) ________ perspective.
cognitive
The law of effect was most clearly highlighted by:
Skinner's experiments on reinforcement.
If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a ________ reinforcer.
conditioned
Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 25,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
fixed-ratio
Through direct experience with animals, we come to anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates:
associative learning.
Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought
food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person was a(n):
conditioned stimulus.
A year after surviving a classroom shooting incident, Angie still responds with terror at the sight of toy guns and to the sound of balloons popping. This reaction best illustrates:
generalization.
In teaching her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially reinforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She is using a procedure known as:
shaping.
Months after she was raped, Courtney's heart pounds with fear merely at the sight of the place in which she was attacked. The location of her attack is most likely a(n) ________ for Courtney's anxiety.
conditioned stimulus
During a typical morning, Colin checks the clock frequently before being reinforced with confirmation that the time for his regularly scheduled lunch break has arrived. In this case, Colin's behavior is reinforced on a ________ schedule.
fixed-interval
After being bitten by his neighbor's dog, Miguel experienced fear at the sight of that dog but not at the sight of other dogs. This best illustrates the process of:
discrimination.
If you get violently ill a couple of hours after eating contaminated food, you will probably develop an aversion to the taste of that food but not to the sight of the restaurant where you ate or to the sound of the music you heard there. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained by:
biological predispositions.
Matt regularly buckles his seat belt simply because it turns off the car's irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value of:
negative reinforcement.
Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children's behavior?
Bandura
f you have a frightening experience immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear may be aroused when you hear that sound again. This best illustrates:
classical conditioning.
You repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed to your eye. Blinking to the tone presented without an air puff is a(n):
CR.
If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick in anticipation of more attention. This best illustrates:
operant conditioning.
Children who are promised a payoff for playing with an interesting toy have later been observed to play with the toy less than those who are not promised the reward. This provides evidence for the role of ________ in operant behavior.
cognitive processes
An empathic husband who observes his wife in pain will exhibit some of the brain activity as she is showing. This best illustrates the functioning of:
mirror neurons.01
Researchers condition a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n):
unconditioned stimulus.
A word of praise is to a soothing backrub as ________ is to ________.
conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforcer
For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a ________ schedule.
variable-ratio
To reduce the personally harmful behavior of some self-destructive children, therapists have squirted water in their faces whenever they bite themselves. The squirt of water is a:
punishment.