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42 Cards in this Set

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define bond energy
energy required to break a chemical bond and fom a neutral isolated atom
define bond length
the distance between 2 bonded atoms at their min. potential energy that is the average distance between two bonded atoms
define covalent bond
a chemical bond resulting from the sharing of an e- pair between 2 atoms
define ionic bond
the chemical bond resutling from electrical attractions between cations and anions
bond strength is measured by ____ in covalent bonds
bond energy
bond strength in ionic bonds is measured by _____
lattice energy
the smallest unit or particle of energy in covalent bonds are ____
molecules
the smallest unit or particle of energy in covalent bonds are ____
ions
which has a higher melting point: covalent or ionic bonds
ionic
which has a higher boiling point: covalent or ionic bonds
ionic
which has a higher volatility: covalent or ionic bonds
covalent
Do covalent bonds have conductivity?
no
Do ionic bonds have conductivity?
Yes, if dissolved in water or in their molten state.
At what stage of energy do covalent bonds form and why?
the lowest potential energy, b/c the repulusion of the forces between nucleusees=the attraction between nucleuses and e-s
what unit is bond length measured in
pm-pikometers
what is the relationship between bond length and bond energy?
as bond length increases, bond energy decreases.
What are the two rules to Lewis structures?
1) Hydrogen never becomes the center atom
2) the center atom has the lowest electronegativity
What does the VESPR theory stand for?
Valence Shell Electron pair Repulsion
What does the VESPR theory mean?
When making Lewis structures spread out the branches and lond pairs equidistance from each other.
Hudson's helpful hints:
-lonepairs make the molecules polar
-symatery=nonpolar
salt
anionic compound formed from the attractive forces of a cation and anion
crystal lattice
geometric structure that illustrates the ions in space of a crystal
What is the ratio between Na Cl?
6Na+:6Cl-=1:1
endothermic energy means that
energy is absorbed by the system
extothermic energy means that
energy is released by the system
when making a cyrtal you (release/absorb) more energy
release
forming bonds in a lattic releases energy. this energy is called ____.
lattice energy.
lattice energy
the enrgy released when 1 mol of gasesous ions form a crystal
Why are ionic compounds electrically neutral?
Each atom of a different element in an ionic bond comes w/ a different charge: cation for positive and anion for negative. Wehn the cation and anion form the conic bond, the positive nad negative add to equal zero.
which has stronger attraction: covalent or ionic?
ioinic
electron trasnfer between atoms is usually
endothermic
formulation of ions is usually
extothermic
diatomic molecule
a molecule containing only two atoms
Formula unit
the simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound's formula can be established
polar
bonds where elctrons are more strongly attracted by the more electronegative atom
chemical bond
a multual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence e- of different atom that binds the atoms together
covalent polar bond
covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared e-
nonpolar
covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally by bonded atoms resulting in a blanced distribution of electrical charge
metallic properties
shiney, malleable, ductile
metlallic bonding
bonding that results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surround sea of e-
delocalized
e- that do not belong to any one atom but move freely around metal's network of empty atomic orbitals
metallic bond strength
varies