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28 Cards in this Set

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Open Reduction
Fracture repair that requires surgery
Closed reduction
Fracture repair that does not require surgery
Partial (incomplete)
fracture that does not extend through the full transverse width of a bone.
Complete
break involving the entire width of the bone
Closed (simple)
Bone not through skin
Open (compound)
Bone is through skin
Communited
Bone Splinters
Greenstick
Esp. in young; bone splinters at one end (side) only
Spiral
A fracture in which the bone has been twisted apart and the line of break is helical.
Transverse
Break at rt. angle to long acis of bone
Impacted
One bone driven into another
Pott's
Break at distal end of fibula
Colles
Distal end of radius breaks and is displaced backwards
Displaced
Bones not aligned after break
Nondisplaced
Bones remain in alignment after break
Stress
Partial fracture, esp. from pounding while running hard surface, 1/4 occur at distal end of fibula
Pathological
From neoplasm = new tissue from tumor or bone infection; bone is thus very weak
Hematoma
rupshired blood vessel
Fracture Repair
1. Formation of fracture hematoma
2. Fibrocartilaginous callus formation
3. Bony callus formation
4. Bone remodeling
Fracture hematoma
Clot that forms after 6 to 8 hours after break
Fibrocartilagenous Callus Formation
capillaries filtervnew blood into fracture hematoma helps organize into growing conn. tissue (procallus)
Fibroblast, osteogenic cells, and red marrow invade the procallus
Fibroblast form collagen fiber which help connect broken bones togther
Phagocytes continue to remove debris
Osteogenic cells form chondroblasts which forms fibrocartilage.
Bony Callus Formation
Osteogenitor cells give rise to Osteoblasts which start to make spongy bone trabeculae.
Trabeculae join with living and dead bone fragments
Fibrocartilage is turned into spongy bone
Bone Remodeling
Dead fragments of bone are resorbed by osteoclasts
Compact bone replaces spongy bone
A thickened area on the surface of the bone may remain after repair
Stimulates growth
Increases bone mass
What are the effects of exercise (2)?
Decalification
loss of calcium and mineral from extracellular matrix
Osteoporosis
From decreases in estrogen - stimulates osteoblasts - more estrogen in females thus results in less bone mass
Decrease in protein metabolism
Brittle bones
Brittle bones
Less protein in diet, etc. means less collagen = less hardening = _____.